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Who is Welch Allyn? We are a privately-held, family-owned manufacturer of medical devices, products and solutions used by caregivers in doctors’ offices, hospitals, and emergency response settings around the world. Simply stated, we make products that help people improve lives. Our goal is to make it easier efficient for caregivers to assess and diagnose their patients, and we do that by applying innovative technologies that help frontline practitioners work more effectively, efficiently, and empathetically with their patients at the point of care.

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乔良:20年里连打四场对外战争 美国人为何而战?

编者按:《超限战》之后,乔良将更多的注意力转移到金融领域,这看似“不务正业”,实则与他的主攻方向战略研究领域并行不悖且密不可分。学术研究常常是聪明人下笨工夫,历经数年探究,他仍自谦为“外行”,但他说,我一直从军事和战略的角度观察经济及金融问题,并且得出了自己的观察结果。本文由他将几篇演讲录音稿改写而成。
美国并不酷爱战争,但美国需要战争。过去20年里,美国是世界上唯一连打过四场对外战争的国家。为什么要如此频繁地发动战争?地球人不懂,恐怕美国人民也不懂,因为这四场战争,发生在三个不同的国家和地区,开战的理由也都十分充分且冠冕堂皇,谁会把它们与一张轻飘飘的绿纸联系在一起?

  为美元而战,这就是美式战争的全部秘密。

  从1971年8月15日到今天,整整40年,美国在全世界推广了一场堪称“完美风暴”的运动——全球化,在纸币美元基础上建起了一个史无前例的金融帝国。这一帝国的触须伸向地球各个角落,在每个地方都机械般上演同一个来复式动作:美元流向世界,财富流向美国。

  为了使这种绿纸换财富的游戏,看上去更像是一波接一波的经济自由化浪潮的结果,而不是少数美国人精心构织的深刻影响20世纪后半叶人类发展进程的金融大战略的产物,这些美国人从未在他们公开的国家战略中谈论过这个话题。据说,上一任美联储主席格林斯潘就职当天,就曾告诫他的同僚:在这里(美联储)你们可以谈论一切,就是不许谈论美元。这是禁忌,美国人对这一关乎美国国家生存的话题讳莫如深。

  了解美国的国家战略,必须先了解美国的国家生存方式

  所以,要了解美国的国家战略,最好不要听美国人说什么。美国人会告诉你许许多多它的国家战略构想,而所有这些战略构想的背后,只有一个目的,那就是维护美国在这个世界上的霸权地位。那么,美国人极力要维护它的霸权又是为了什么?答案只有一个:为了延续美国作为世界上唯一超级大国的国家生存方式。因此,了解美国国家战略的最好办法,不是听美国人自己说什么,而是要了解美国的生存方式。

  美国人在过去40年里,找到了一种在他们看来是最好的,也最便捷的国家生存方式,那就是用金融手段从全球向美国转移财富。美国人发现自己可以不用生产其他的产品,只生产一样东西就可以致富,就可以过得比世上所有人都好,这个方式就是印刷美元。美国人可以用生产美元来过好日子,就此意义上说,美国人最基本的生存方式就是金融生存。

  了解了这一点,我们就可以懂得,为什么在过去的40年里,美国把它所谓的垃圾产业、夕阳产业纷纷转移到其他国家,转移到新兴国家包括中国,而让它70%的就业人口从事金融和金融服务业。

  过去半个多世纪里,美国完成了一个制造业大国向金融业大国的转型,它已经彻底改变了自己的生存及生活方式。了解了这一点,我们就不难了解美国的国家战略。因为任何一个国家包括中国在内,你的战略一定是围绕你的生存方式展开。按西方的说法,中国目前的生存方式就是世界加工厂。要做世界加工厂你就需要获得资源,获得能源,然后生产出产品。你的国家战略也要围绕这一切展开。而美国人不是这样,美国人只要开动印钞机就可以生存,美国在过去40年里逐渐完善了自己的一套体系,这个体系我们不妨把它叫做金融殖民体系。

  美国的这种独一无二的国家战略和战略金融体系是什么时候形成的?让我们先回头翻翻世界近现代史,美国在两次世界大战后完成了人类历史上最雄心勃勃的帝国崛起,这也是人类历史上从未有过的一个完全新型的帝国。人类自有帝国历史以来,从罗马帝国到大英帝国,基本上都是以一种相似的方式完成帝国积累财富、消耗财富的过程。这种方式是什么呢?就是占领别国的领土,掠夺别国的资源,奴役别国的人民。这就是经典的殖民帝国模式。但是两次世界大战的教训,使美国意识到,必须避免重蹈古典帝国模式的覆辙。因为一次大战德国向老牌殖民帝国挑战,想要获取自己的生存空间,结果失败了。20多年后德国再度崛起,再次向老牌殖民帝国发起挑战,又再度失败了。美国毫无疑问记取了这个历史教训:如果一个国家的崛起,一定要从老牌殖民帝国那里虎口夺食的话,就不可避免地会发生战争,而其结果只能是两败俱伤,最后徒使他人得利。美国就是两次大战最大的获利者。在这样一种历史的判断下,美国人希望设计出一种新型的帝国模式,这种帝国一定不同于传统意义的帝国,而又能尽享帝国之利。于是,如何巧妙地设计并建立一个全新的独一无二的帝国,就成了美国一代代政治家、战略家们的重大历史课题。

  逐渐“完美”的金融殖民帝国的蓝图

  美国历史上唯一一个突破美国宪法限制,连续干过四届美国总统的罗斯福,应该说是20世纪美国最重要的政治家。他的重要之处在于他的影响超出了20世纪,甚至到21世纪美国和世界也还生活在他的影响中。比如说联合国,再比如说关贸总协定(即后来的世界贸易组织),就是在他的主导下创立的。

  更重要的还有“布雷顿森林体系”。1944年7月,在美国新罕布什尔州的一个叫做布雷顿森林的小镇上,盟国的财政部长、央行行长和少量经济学家云集在一起,经过几番激烈争吵,讨价还价,商量出了一个世界货币体系,这个货币体系被称为“布雷顿森林体系”。它的实质用一句话就可以讲清楚:全世界的货币锁定美元,而美元锁定黄金。美国政府向全世界承诺,每35美元可以兑换一盎司黄金,那个时候的美国可以说是志得意满,因为这个时候的美国有世界上最大的黄金储备,世界上80%的黄金都捏在美国人手里,与此同时,美国还拥有世界上最强大的生产能力和军事机器。

  通过建立“布雷顿森林体系”,美国人一举确立了美元的霸权地位。这个地位一直延续到1971年8月15日,在此之前,美国是世界上最富裕、最稳定的、经济发展势头最好的国家,自然,美元信誉也是最好的。

  但,花无百日红,人无千日好。美国人的好日子也有到头的那天。在朝鲜战场上铩羽而归的美国人,并没有接受那场战争的教训。

  1959年,美国人又远涉重洋,卷入了越南战争。在越南打了将近17年的仗,到1975年结束仓皇撤离西贡时,美国人一共被击落上万架飞机,丢掉了 49000名官兵的生命,最后却一无所获!这场战争打掉美国8000亿美元,相当于现在3万亿美元。相应的,美国的黄金储备也日渐减少, 到1971年这场战争还没有结束,美国已经是捉襟见肘,钱不够花了。而那时的美国人却不能像今天应对金融危机这样,实行“适度货币宽松政策”,打开印钞机狂印美元。因为,有“布雷顿森林体系”横在那里,让美国人不能随心所欲,没有足够多的黄金你就不能印足够多的美元!因为你对全世界有承诺,你是全世界的基准货币,你必须保持美元的稳定。这使美国陷入了空前的窘境。

  战争还在继续进行,黄金储备日渐减少,多印美元没有可能,美国人思来想去,没别的办法,只能失信于世人了。

  1971年8月15日,当时的美国总统尼克松宣布:美元跟黄金脱钩。这一失信之举意味着美国可以不受黄金的羁绊,随意加印美元了。过去每印35美元都要准备一盎司黄金,现在起码从理论上说,想印多少就可以印多少!但是美国人并非傻瓜,还不至于傻到以为光印钞票就能解决问题。美国人当然懂得,超量印钞就是自掘坟墓。当你自己把自己的钱贬得一文不值时,你的这个国家就跟着完蛋。于是美国政府就出钱让人去做一个研究报告,看看美元跟黄金脱钩后,究竟对美国有什么影响?对世界经济又会有什么影响?半年后,研究报告《黄金非货币化的影响》出炉。研究者的名字叫迈克尔·赫德森,这是一位有良知的年轻经济学家,他在报告中提醒美国政府,美元跟黄金脱钩,在短时间内对美国有好处,因为美国可以在全世界还没回过神来时多印钞票,用没有黄金背书的纸币去占全世界的便宜。但长期看,这对美国和全世界都决不是什么好事,尤其对美国,无疑是饮鸩止渴。美国政府拿到这个报告后,欣喜若狂,如获至宝。俨然如醍醐灌顶,大彻大悟!他们根本不理会迈克尔·赫德森的警告,对迈氏的报告反其意而用之。在这些美国经济政策的制定者看来,既然这么干短期对美国有好处,干吗不把它变成一个长期的好处,让美国人永久享用呢?当然,这首先需要与黄金脱钩后完全变成一张绿纸的美元,在全世界面前,仍然保持它的信用。这就意味着美元必须保持它的霸权地位。怎样才能保持美元的霸权地位呢?美国政府认为最重要的是两根支柱,一根是美国强大的科技创新力。另一根是美国强大的军事实力。有了这两根支柱,就能确保美元的信用,美元就可以作为硬通货在全世界畅通无阻。美国人也就可以在全世界更加随心所欲地玩纸币转移实物财富的魔术。

  但美国人也担心,仅仅靠美国自身的实力,别人不买你的账怎么办?那么,与黄金脱钩后的美元,最好与世界上最重要的大宗商品挂钩,才能确保美元的地位稳如磐石。机会很快就来了。1973年的10月6日,第四次中东战争爆发。一开始,埃及人和叙利亚人两线出击,打了以色列一个措手不及,但不久后战况逆转,以色列反占上风。

  一场旗开得胜的战争最终以被迫停战告终,这让阿拉伯世界非常郁闷。坐拥石油的阿拉伯人决定,在战场上得不到的东西,就从其他地方去获得。于是,欧佩克 ——国际石油输出国组织——决定用石油做武器,抬高油价打击西方。这个办法果然比战争来得更有效,很快西方就承受不住了。

  这时,美国当时的财政部长西蒙秘密地飞到了沙特,去见沙特的石油大臣,也是首任欧佩克秘书长,告诉他:你们想把油价打多高我们不管,但是要想不让美国人与你们为敌,你们必须接受一个条件,就是全球的石油交易用美元结算。这位沙特的石油大臣与整个世界一样,对美国人这一招棋的深远机心并不了然,于是就一口答应了美国人的要求,从此,全世界的石油交易与美元挂钩,而美元的信用也就在此后40年里,牢牢地与全球的能源需求挂上了钩。

  走到这一步,美国人设计出的这个新型帝国渐渐开始显现出轮廓,这就是人类帝国史上从未出现过的金融殖民帝国。美国人发现,比起当年德国人虎口夺食去争取一个国家的生存空间这种愚蠢做法来,更高明的办法,应该是通过让世人几乎觉察不到的方式,乖乖地让他们把手中财富交出来,而又不制造仇恨。要达此目的,没有比金融殖民更好的办法了,这办法可以把全世界都纳入美国的金融体系中,然后,像拧开自来水水龙头一样让财富滚滚流入美国人的口袋。

  “全球化”不是历史必然,而是美国人的精心设计

  为了实现这个大战略目标,美国需要推进全球经济的变化,以适应美国的胃口。首先要完成是全球产业大分工,即所谓的全球化。为了造势,更为了让美国式的全球化得到地球人的普遍认同,必须有一种理论为其摇旗呐喊,为此,美国人摈弃了凯恩斯,选择了自由市场经济理论,把它作为一种先导性理论,为美国主导的全球化开道。

  要使全球产业大分工看上去合情合理,完全合乎经济规律,美国人用比较优势理论把全世界分成了两块,一块是美国,美国人认为它的优势就在于生产美元;另一块是全世界。全世界的优势在哪儿呢?比如,中国人,你的比较优势就在于你有大量的廉价劳动力。你的发展就只能借助这一优势。这理由简直让你心服口服,通过比较优势理论,美国就永远处在了全球经济生物链的高端,而像中国这样拥有大量廉价劳动力的国家,就别无选择地只能发展劳动力密集型产业,不可改变地永远居于整个经济生物链的低端,其他国家以此类推,全球产业大分工就这样完成了。

  由美国人作为一方,全世界作为另一方,由美国人负责生产美元,而全世界负责生产用美元交换的产品,这就是美国人主导的全球产业大分工的本质,从此,全球化浪潮席卷全球。

  当这样一种对应关系形成之后,在美国和全世界之间,会出现什么情况呢?

  美国用自己的金融体系,把全世界与美国紧紧捆绑在一起,这种由美国向世界输出美元,而世界向美国提供产品的交易模式,其结果就是全球财富快速向美国集中,这也就是美国在1990年前的200多年里,GDP最高时才不过达到7万亿美元,而在最近的短短20年里,GDP居然翻了一番,达到14万亿的根本原因。当然,美国人比全世界都清楚,用这种方式聚敛的财富,仅仅靠全球产业大分工是不够的,甚至再加上石油与美元挂钩也还不够,还需要一个非常强有力的手段,如果没有这个手段,美国不足以从世人手中掠走那么多的财富,而这个手段就是天下第一的军事实力。

  20年间连打四场战争,美国人为什么而战?

  美国人为什么要打伊拉克战争?答曰:为了石油。那么,接下来的问题是:为什么美国占领伊拉克后,却不从伊拉克免费拉走一桶石油?美国普通百姓为什么也要和世人一道忍受高油价的煎熬?这是很多人百思不得其解的问题,但是答案在本文的前面已经给出,就是全球的石油交易与美元挂钩。

  当美国打下伊拉克时,首先出现的是什么情况?全球油价飙升。油价飙升,交易又以美元结算,意味着什么呢?意味着油价的飙升拉高了全球的美元需求,也就是说,美国人通过战争打出了全球的美元需求。打伊拉克战争之前,一桶石油38美元,打完了之后接近150美元,等于一场战争把美元的需求打高了近三倍。当全世界需要更多的美元去购买石油时,最高兴的当然除了产油国,就是美国政府了。因为这样一来,美国政府就能以给全世界提供流动性的名义,开动印钞机,印刷更多的美元,而美国政府不是慈善家,不会白白把美元给你,你必须拿你的产品去换,从而再一次加入实物换绿纸的游戏。此时美国政府的印钞行为可以说名正言顺,而用不着像金融危机的今天,明目张胆也失信于人地在全世界没有需求的情况下增发美元。

  如此这般,更多的美元流到了其他国家的手里,流到了产油国的手里,也流到了需要购买石油的国家手里。这么多美元攥在这些国家手里能干什么呢?除了作为财富的符号让人开心外,就是变为废纸的前景让人担心,因为美元正以日新月异的速度在贬值,天天在贬值,天天都在变成废纸,这个时候你唯一的选择,就是美国人早就为你准备好的选择:购买美国的国债。

  购买美国国债使巨量的美元回流美国,也使美国成了全世界最大的债务国。那么,美国为什么需要让流向全世界的美元,再以购买美国国债的方式回流美国呢?因为不担心经常项目长期处于逆差状态的美国,却十分担心短期的资本项目出现逆差,换句话说,一个几乎没有储蓄率的美国,必须始终保持资本项目的顺差,而这个顺差的额度在2001年前后的时候,大约是每年7000亿美元左右,也就是说,需要每天净流入美国20亿美元。因此,美国需要大量的世界资本回流美国,才能保持其正常经济生活的流动性,否则,大部分美国人刷卡透支的好日子就难以为继,因此,美国不怕经常项目逆差,惟恐资本项目逆差。为了保持资本项下的顺差,美国会不惜动用战争手段,去打坏别国、别的地区的投资环境,像驱赶羊群一样,把美元驱赶回美国。所以说,表面上看,两次伊拉克战争都和石油有关,但实际上主要是和美元有关。因为只要在产油区打仗,油价就会上升,美元的需求也就会随之上升。如此一来,美国人就可以开动印钞机,印更多的美元,从全球换回更多的实物财富,道理就这么简单。

  “项庄舞剑,意在沛公”,科索沃战争剑指欧元

  有人会问,既然如此,科索沃地区并不产石油,美国人为什么还要打科索沃战争?打科索沃战争和美元是什么关系?在打响科索沃战争之前,很多人都相信了西方宣传机器的一面之词,认为美国人打南联盟,是为了进行人道主义干预。因为美国中央情报局和西方媒体联手撒了一个弥天大谎:说米洛舍维奇的南联盟政权在科索沃屠杀了9万阿族人。事后证明这完全是一个谣言,但是当谣言澄清之后,美国早已打败了南联盟。

  那么,美国打科索沃的真正动机到底是什么?要看清楚这一点我们需要把日历前翻。这场战争发生的时间是1999年3月,但耐人寻味的是,1999年1月1日,发生了另一个重大事件:欧元正式启动。当时欧元和美元的汇率是1∶1.07,欧元作为一种全新的国际结算货币,一上来就对美元霸权地位构成了挑战和威胁。仅仅两个月后,科索沃战争打响。战争还没结束,世人便发现,深受战争创伤的,不光是南联盟,还有欧元。有欧盟各国空军做帮手的72天的狂轰滥炸,其最重要的结果,不光是米洛舍维奇政权的垮台,还有欧元与美元汇率的倒挂,由1欧元兑换1.07美元,变为0.82美元兑换1欧元,欧元跌幅达30%。

  由此可以看出,美国人打科索沃战争是“项庄舞剑,意在‘欧元’”。西方人喜欢标榜民主国家之间不打仗,但美国人在欧洲的腹心地带打的一仗,首先打坏的是欧洲的投资环境,从而使欧元刚刚诞生就立刻面临夭折的危险,因为美国绝不能容忍还有其他什么货币与美元平起平坐,即使是欧洲兄弟的欧元也不行。

  理解美国人的这种心思并不难,在欧元出现之前,美元是世界上唯一的储备货币、基准货币,全世界所有国家的贸易结算几乎都是用美元。这意味着美国拥有独此一家别无分号向全世界征收隐形铸币税的权力。突然间出现了欧元,一个庞大的欧元经济体从此后不再由美国人收铸币税,这对美国来讲,其打击不仅仅是铸币税的损失,而且是美元霸权根基的动摇。是可忍,孰不可忍?所以美国人即使不是意欲除之而后快,也必定会果断出手,对这个挑战者实施毫不手软的打击,就此角度看,科索沃战争的爆发不可避免。

  此外,科索沃战争向我们展示的美式战争与货币资本及美国金融大战略的关系,还不仅仅体现在美元与欧元的货币霸权之争上,其他的现象同样耐人寻味。科索沃战争爆发之前,有关资料数据显示,大约有7000多亿热钱在欧洲游荡,晃来晃去,找不到投资的去向,因为此时欧洲上空已战云密布,一旦战争打响,投资环境便会迅速恶化,你的投资就可能面临颗粒无收血本无归。追求利润最大化是所有投资者的信条,但同时既要获利,还要安全的获利,如果不安全,宁可不投资,这也是投资者的信条。

  结果,战争一打响,7000多亿热钱中有4000多亿立刻从欧洲抽逃,其中2000多亿去了美国,直接支持了美国已经连续90多个月的经济繁荣。美国历史上还从来没有过如此漫长的经济增长期。

  另外的2000多亿则去了香港,香港怎么可能在短时间内消化这么多钱?显然是那些投资人或投机家,看好中国内地市场,想拿香港做跳板,进入中国内地。让人备感蹊跷的是,恰在这个时候不早不晚发生了一件震惊世界的事情,美国人用5枚精确制导炸弹,“误炸”了中国驻南联盟大使馆。接下来,美国人惯用的通过军事手段改变别人的投资环境,用炸弹像驱赶羊群一样驱赶资本的情况在极短的时间内出现了,一个星期之后,滞留香港的2000多亿热钱从香港抽逃,最后去了哪儿呢?又去了美国,4000多亿热钱全部流到了美国,去支持美国已经连续90多个月的经济繁荣,一直到小布什上台,这个经济繁荣期才告结束。

  打阿富汗不是为了反恐,而是要打回全球资本对美国投资环境的信心

  从以上例证,我们可以看出,美国人发动的战争和其他国家间发生的战争,从目标到方式再到结果都很不相同。美国人的战争除了改变别人的投资环境之外,还驱赶资本流入美国。因为储蓄率只有百分之二点几(现在也不过刚达到6.9%)的美国,需要大量的美元回流,以支撑这个国家的流动性。这是美国在过去20年里,连续在伊拉克和科索沃打仗的原因,同时也是其以反恐为名,仓促打响阿富汗战争的原因。

  为什么说阿富汗战争美国是仓促打响?因为 “9·11”发生之后两个月不到,美国就打响了这场战争,这完全不符合美国打一场局部战争的战争准备规律。1980年之后,美国人连打了四场战争,除阿富汗战争之外另外的三场战争,美国人的战争准备时间都在半年左右,这意味着美国打一场局部战争需要半年的准备,但是阿富汗战争却是个例外,不到两个月就仓促打响。仓促到什么程度呢?仓促到美国人打仗打到一半的时候,居然就把巡航导弹打光了,这个时候还在继续打,怎么办呢?五角大楼只好下命令打开核武器库,拆下核弹头,换上常规弹头,又打了近千枚,才把阿富汗打下来。

  既然明知道打一场局部战争需要准备半年时间,那美国人干吗不准备充分一点再打这场战争呢?不行,因为时间不允许,美国的经济形势不允许。因为这个时候正是“9·11”发生之后不久,大量的资金开始撤离美国。因为全球的投资人突然对全世界最安全的投资环境——美国产生了疑虑。美国是全球的金融中心,纽约是美国的金融中心,而华尔街是纽约的中心,世贸大厦则是中心的中心。现在,这个中心的中心居然让恐怖分子给撞毁了,谁还敢对你的投资环境保持信心呢?于是,从这时起,据说有三四千亿美元撤离了美国,前面提到美国每年需要吸纳大约 7000多亿美元的净流入,这个时候有三四千亿美元撤离美国,而这一年还有几个月的日子要过,没有钱怎么行?所以美国迫切需要一场战争,需要用一场战争,打回全世界投资人对美国的信心。

  果然如此,当阿富汗战争打响之后,巡航导弹一落在阿富汗的土地上,道琼斯指数就在短期下探后很快回升,华尔街一片叫好,随着战况进展顺利,大量撤离的资金又陆续回到了美国,这场战争重新打回了全世界对美国投资环境的信心。由此我们可以看出,美国人向全世界展示的现代战争理念是,如果我的投资环境不好而短期内又无法改变的话,那我就用战争把其他地方打得更坏,反衬出美国相对的好。你不是认为我的投资环境不安全吗?那我就打一场战争给你看,美国仍然是最强大的,美国人想打谁就打谁,你要觉得美国的投资环境不安全,还有别的地方比我更不安全,那个地方还在发生战争。这就是美国的军事力量如何为它的金融大战略服务。

  建立“全球快速打击系统”,用快变量控制全球资本流

  过去,美国人喜欢说,当世界上什么地方出现麻烦,美国总统的第一反应就是:我们的航空母舰在哪里?现在这种说法正在逐渐成为过去时。当互联网把全球连成一个整体,网上交易、网上支付已成家常便饭,随便敲几下键盘,成百亿、上千亿甚至数万亿的美元,就可以在瞬间完成转移或者是抽逃时,这种几乎以光速运行的资本流动,是每小时以三四十节的速度航行的航空母舰无法跟上的。即便是以超音速飞行的舰载机,也同样跟不上。因为无论航母还是舰载机,都是物流经济时代的产物。是为争夺海上霸权,控制海上物流而设计的海面武器平台。在资本流已成为全球经济生活主流的时代,美国人显然已经意识到需要一种能与资本的流速相匹配的快变量手段,才可能控制或改变全球资本的流速和流向。

  为此,五角大楼对其军事力量提出了新的要求:尽快建立“全球快速打击系统”。这一系统要求美军的军事打击能力,能比航母为代表的传统军事手段更快捷地打击地球上任何目标,打击时限也一再缩短,从号称一小时打遍全球,缩短到28分钟打遍全球。这个速度有什么意义呢?其意义就在于,它基本上可以跟上资本流动的速度了。当大气层返回式弹道导弹或五六倍于音速的巡航导弹落在地球的某一点上时,这一地区的投资环境就会迅速改变,惊慌的投资者们会迅速把资金撤离这个地区,那么,撤离后这些资本会去哪里?总不能悬在半空中,总要有个去处。这个去处还必须是安全的。哪个地方最安全呢?当然是谁的拳头大,谁那里就最安全。美国急于发展“全球快速打击系统”的目的,无非就是要用军事手段这个快变量,像当年航母控制海上物流一样,控制全世界的资本流。

  今天,已经持续了近三年之久的金融危机,在一定程度上削弱了美国的整体实力,即便是看上去受金融危机冲击最小的美国国力的支柱和象征——军事力量,也不可避免地受到了影响。美国国防部长盖茨在奥巴马总统上台后,宣布一系列压缩军费计划 ——原定采购381架F-22战机,现在减为187架;原定建造33艘新型驱逐舰,现在变成3艘;原准备用140亿美元部署TMD、NMD导弹拦截系统的拦截导弹,现在计划取消;原准备生产140架C-17“环球霸王”这种飞遍全球不加油的运输机,现在不生产了。最后,连耗资130亿美元的总统直升机项目也下马了——这一切都传递出了美国军力捉襟见肘的信息。

  但是,我们都不能据此就得出美国会从战略上整体收缩,甚至可能拱手交出霸权的结论。因为在做出上述一系列压缩之举的同时,我们会看到五角大楼的另一些耐人寻味的举措:比如说建立空天司令部,比如说建立全球第一支网军,又比如说全球第一架空天飞机的试飞,再比如说正在研发的5倍于音速的巡航导弹……所有这些,又都在向我们传递与前述信息相反的信息,那就是五角大楼比以往任何时候都更注重美军的速度——从部署的速度到打击的速度,而这一切,都与资本的流速和流向有关,因为美国人心里最清楚,今天的美国是一个建立在纸币上的帝国。要让这个帝国不垮塌,就必须保持美元的霸权,现在,要做到这一点,除了军事手段,美国人手上似乎已没有其他什么管用的家伙了。

  (作者为空军指挥学院教授、少将)

2011年02月25日11:17 来源:《中国青年报》

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  www.landrover.com  
  www.grouplotus.com www.lotuscars.com(Official Lotus Cars website in USA)
  www.mclaren.co.uk  
  www.morgan-motor.co.uk  
  www.rolls-roycemotorcars.com  
  www.sterlingsportscars.com Sterling Sports Car
  www.vauxhall.com  
India الهند
  www.marutisuzuki.co  
  www.tatamotors.com  
  www.tuctuc.co.uk  
Iran إيران
  www.ikco.com/default.aspx  
Italy إيطاليا
  www.alfaromeo.com  
  www.bugatti-cars.de  
  www.dallara.it سيارات سباق Racing cars
  www.ferrariworld.com  
  www.fiat.com  
  www.lamborghini.com  
  www.lancia.com  
  www.maserati.com  
  www.paganiautomobili.it/english.htm Pagani Automobiles
Japan اليابان
  www.daihatsu.com شركة عبد اللطيف جميل www.alj.com
  www.honda.com  
  www.isuzu.com  
  www.lexus.com شركة عبد اللطيف جميل www.alj.com
  www.mazda.com www.mazda.com.sa
  www.mitsubishimotors.com www.mitsubishi-motors.com.egميتسوبيشي مصر
  www.nissanusa.com شركة الحمراني المتحدة

www.nissan.com.sa/arabic/index

  www.subaru.com www.subaru.com.sa
  www.suzuki.com www.suzukisaudia.com
  www.toyota.com

www.fleet.toyota.com

www.toyota.com.sa

شركة عبد اللطيف جميل www.alj.com

Korea كوريا
  www.daewoous.com  
  www.hyundai-motor.com  
  www.kiamotors.com www.kia-sa.comالجبر للسيارات
Malaysia ماليزيا
  www.proton.com  
Netherlands هولاندا
  www.spykercars.nl  
Russia روسيا
  www.avtovaz.ru
www.gm-avtovaz.ru
Avto VAZ (in Russian)
  www.gaz21.com  
www.lada.gr  
Serbia صربيا
  www.zastava.net
www.zastavanacionale.com
 
Spain أسبانيا
  www.seat.com  
Sweden السويد
  www.koenigsegg.com  
  www.saab.com  
  www.volvocars.com  
USA الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية
  www.acura.com هولنداأمريكا
  www.buick.com  
  www.cadillac.com  
  www.chevrolet.com  
  www.chrysler.com http://www.autoglasssearch.com/articles/chrysler.html
  www.dodge.com  
  www.eaglecars.com  
  www.ford.com

www.fleet.ford.com

 
 
  www.gm.com General Motors Corp.
www.gmarabia.com الموقع العربي
www.mygmlink.com Owner Center
http://www.gm.ca/gm/ GM of Canada
  www.gmc.com  
  www.hummer.com  
  www.infiniti.com نيسان (أمريكا)
  www.jeep.com  
  www.lincoln.com  
  www.mercuryvehicles.com  
  www.oldsmobile.com  
  www.pontiac.com  
  www.saturn.com  
  www.scion.com تويوتا (أمريكا)
.. ..
     

Car Makers (Manufacturers)- Trucks & Buses مصنعي الشاحنات والحافلات

  www.blue-bird.com حافلات (أمريكا)
  www.daftrucks.com شاحنات (هولندا)
www.foden.com شاحنات (إنجلترا)
  http://english.foton.com.cn/ شاحنات (الصين)- الوكيل بالمملكة العربية السعودية
www.foton-ksa.com
  www.hino-global.com شاحنات (اليابان)
  www.isuzucv.com شاحنات (اليابان)
  www.iveco.com شاحنات (إيطالياألمانيا)
  www.kenworth.com شاحنات (أمريكا)
www.man-trucks.nl شاحنات (ألمانيا)
  www.paccar.com/corp/LeylandPage.asp شاحنات (إنجلترا)
  www.peterbilt.com  
  www.scania.com شاحنات (السويد)
  www.sinotrukcn.com
www.sino-truck.com
شاحنات (الصين)
  www.goldendragonbus.com/en حافلات (الصين) Golden Dragon

Electrical Cars  السيارات الكهربائية

  www.teslamotors.com تسلا موتور

Hybrid Cars  السيارات المهجنة

  http://gm-volt.com Volt
  www.toyota.com/prius-hybrid Prius

Alternative-Fuel Vehicles  سيارات الوقود البديل

Air الهواء
    The air car
Alternative Fuel  الوقود البديل
  www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/
www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (U.S. Department of Energy). The Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (AFDC, formerly known as the Alternative Fuels Data Center)
Biodiesel  الديزل الحيوي
  www.biodiesel.org Biodiesel
  www.buffalobiodiesel.com Buffalo Biodiesel Inc.
Electric الكهرباء
  www.teslamotors.com Tesla Motors
  www.allcarselectric.com  
Ethanol إيثانول
  www.ethanol.org  
  http://www.e85fuel.com  
Fuel Cell خلايا الوقود
  www.heliocentris.com Fuel Cell Technology
Hybrid  مهجنة
  www.hybridcars.com Hybrid Cars
Hydrogen هيدروجين
  www.h2mobility.org  
  www.hydrogenassociation.org  
Mixed Power (Hybrid)  السيارة المهجنة
  www.mixedpower.com Mixed Power
Vegetable Oil الزيت النباتي
  www.goldenfuelsystems.com Golden Fuel Systems
  www.greasecar.com Grease Car
Water ماء
  http://runcaronwater.weebly.com/ Run Car on Water
Alternative Fuel الوقود البديل
  www.emerson.com  

Mobile Equipment & Tractors  الجرارات والمعدات الثقيلة

  www.alke.com High Performance Utility Vehicles, Italian
  www.cat.com  
  www.deere.com  
  www.tractordata.com  

Car Trading تجارة السيارات

  www.autocheck.com Auto Check
  www.autoextra.com Auto Extra
  www.automart.com Auto Mart
  www.autotropolis.com www.autotropolis.com is a dynamic and interactive web site that provides all the help you need for buying a car. You can search for both new and used cars in your local area, or use the Vehicle Selector Aid to find the best car for your lifestyle, performances, and budget. Loads of information is available so you can fully research your car before you buy it.
  www.carfax.com Vehicle History Reports
  www.carsales.com.au Car Sales
  http://consumerguideauto.howstuffworks.com  
  www.edmunds.com  
  www.kbb.com  
  http://www.motors.ebay.com/ eBay Motors
  www.nada.com
www.nada.org
National Automobile Dealers Association

Auto Parts Manufactures مصنعي أجزاء السيارات

  www.acdelco.com AC Delco
  www.bosch.com

www.boschautoparts.co.uk

 
  www.globaldenso.com/en/ Denso
  www2.dupont.com/Automotive/en_US  
  www.magna.com Design, develop and manufacture automotive systems, assemblies, modules and components, and engineer and assemble complete vehicles, primarily for sale to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) of cars and light trucks.
  www.motorcraft.com Motor Craft
  www.motorola.com/automotive  
  www.siemensvdo.com  

Auto Parts Stores محلات قطع غيار السيارات

  www.acdelco.com AC Delco
  www.advanceautoparts.com Advance Auto Parts
  www.autozone.com Auto Zone
  www.automotive-online.com  
  www.boschautoparts.co.uk Bosch Auto Parts
  www.carquest.com Car Quest
  www.car-stuff.com  
  www.coventrywest.com Extensive inventory of New Parts includes Genuine Jaguar & Land Rover parts, Original Equipment Manufacture (OEM) parts, and many Aftermarket parts. We also operate our own     in-house rebuilding facility as well as one of the largest Jaguar & Land     Rover salvage operations in the country. Coventry West is your best source for New, Rebuilt, or Used parts for your Jaguar or Land Rover!
  www.napaonline.com NAPA on Line
  www.partsamerica.com Parts America
  www.pepboys.com Parts, Service and So Much More
  www.usautoparts.net US Auto Parts
  http://discounttires.com Discount tires
  www.tirerack.com Tire rack

Auto Services & Repairs خدمات وإصلاح السيارات

  www.aamco.com  
  www.autoglasssearch.com Auto Glass Search
  www.boschservice.com  
  www.goodwrench.com Good Wrench
  www.jiffylube.com Automotive services (Oil change, ….    )
  www.kauffmantire.com Kauffman Tire
  www.meineke.com  
  www.midas.com Brake service
  www.usamuffler.com Muffler service

Automotive Parts Suppliers  موردي مكونات السيارات

  www.arvinmeritor.com ArvinMeritor, Inc. is a premier global supplier of a broad range of integrated systems, modules and components to original equipment manufacturers and the aftermarket for the transportation and industrial sectors. The company serves commercial truck, trailer and specialty original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and certain aftermarkets, and light vehicle manufacturers.
  www.automotive-online.com An informative B2B marketplace, connecting global buyers with leading manufacturers of automotive components and parts from all across the globe. It features industry overview, news, professional associations, publications, product catalogs, international trade leads, trade events relating to global automotive components & parts industry.
  www.dieselnet.co Online information service on clean diesel engines and diesel emissions
  www.visteon.com  

Air  and Oil filter فلتر الهواء والزيت

  www.knfilters.com K&N
  www.fram.co  

Antifreeze/Coolant  مانع التجمد/سائل التبريد

  www.prestone.com  

Automotive Chemicals, Filters, and Oils كيماويات السيارات, والفلتر, والزيوت

  www.alcofilters.com Alco filters
  www.castrol.com www.castrolarabia.com
  www.fuchs.com www.fuchs.com.sa
  www.havoline.com  
  www.lube-tips.com  
  www.peaklubricants.com PEAK Lubricants
  www.pennzoil.com  
  www.quakerstate.com  
  www.stp.com  
  www.valvoline.com  

Auto Systems & Components أنظمة وأجزاء السيارة

  www.borgwarner.com BorgWarner is the recognized leader in advanced products and technologies that satisfy customer needs in powertrain components and systems solutions.
  www.boschusa.com  
  www.conti-online.com  
  www.delphi.com Delphi is a leading global supplier of electronics and technologies for automotive, commercial vehicle and other market segments. Operating major technical centers, manufacturing sites and customer support facilities in 30 countries, Delphi delivers real-world innovations that make products smarter and safer as well as more powerful and efficient.
  www.duralastparts.com Duralast parts
  www.globaldenso.com/en/ DENSO, a leading supplier of advanced automotive technology, systems and components for all the world’s major automakers.
  www2.dupont.com/Automotive/en_US  
  www.trw.com  
  www.visteon.com Visteon is a leading global supplier of automotive systems, modules and components to global vehicle manufacturers and the automotive aftermarket. Innovative solutions offered by Visteon include climate, interiors and electronics, including lighting.

Battery بطاريات

  www.douglasbattery.com Douglas Battery
  www.everstart-batteries.com EverStart
  www.optimabatteries.com بطاريات أوبتيما (ذات الخلايا الأسطوانية الملفوفة) Optima Batery
  www.varta-automotive.c VARTA

Bearings رمان بلي

  www.fag.com FAG
  www.ina.com INA
  www.mgkbearings.com MGK
  www.nsk.com NSK
  www.skf.com SKF

Brakes  فرامل

  www.bendixbrakes.com  
  www.ferodo.co.uk  
  www.mgmbrakes.com Full line supplier of spring brakes… Worldwide

Body & Exterior parts  جسم السيارة

  http://shop.carbodyparts.net Car Body Parts
     

Bulbs لمبات

  www.1stautobulbs.com 1st AutoBulbs, The UK’s leading suppliers of:
Xenon headlight Bulbs, including Osram Silverstar Philips Blue Vision

Chock Absorber & Spring   المساعدين والنوابض

  www.bilsteinus.com Chock Absorber
  www.driveriteltd.com Drive Rite (Air suspension Systems)
  www.gabriel.com Chock Absorber
  www.kyb.com.my  
  www.lovells.com.au Spring
  www.monroe.com  

Clutch القابض

  www.daikin-clutch.com
www.exedyusa.com
 
  www.lukclutch.com Luk Clutch
  www.valeoclutches.com Valeo Clutches

Engines  محركات

  www.deutz.de  
  www.powertecengineering.com  
Turbo & Super Charger شاحن جبري
  www.holset.co.uk  
  www.turbobygarrett.com  
  www.ststurbo.com  
  www.turbodriven.com  
  www.turbobygarrett.com  

Spark Plugs  شمعات الإشعال

  www.autolite.com  
  www.championsparkplugs.com  
  www.densoiridium.com  
  www.ngksparkplugs.com  

Transmission ناقل الحركة- صندوق السرعات

  www.zf.com  
  www.zeroshift.com  

Propeller shafts أعمدة الإدارة

  http://www.pssupply.com Prop shaft supply
     

Axle المحاور

  www.osmankoc.com OSMAN KOC
  www.arabianaxles.com Arabian Axles

Tire Manufacturer Companies  شركات تصنيع الإطارات   

  www.bfgoodrichtires.com  
  www.bridgestone.com www.bridgestone-mea.com
  www.continentaltire.com  
  www.coopertire.com  
  www.dunloptire.com www.alrashedgoodyear.com
  www.firestone.com
www.firestonecompleteautocare.com
Firestone Complete Auto Care
  www.generaltire.com General Tire
  www.goodyear.com  
  www.gt-radial-tires.com GT Radial
  www.hankooktireusa.com Hankook Tire USA
  www.kellytires.com Kelly Tire
  www.michelin.com  
  www.pirelli.com http://www.gascol.com (We are the exclusive distributor for the full range of Pirelli and Bergougnan Tyres throughout the kingdom of Saudi Arabia.)
  www.tirerack.com  
  www.toyo.com  
  www.yokohamatire.com www.yokohama.com.sa
Truck & Trailer Tires إطارات الشاحنات والمقطورة
  http://www.alturatyres.com/products/index.htm  
  http://www.birdtire.com/ http://www.gascol.com (We are the exclusive distributor for the full range of Pirelli and Bergougnan Tyres throughout the kingdom of Saudi Arabia.)
  www.doublecoin-us.com  
  http://www.trelleborg.com/en/wheelsystems/  
Tire Care العناية بالإطارات
  www.slime.com  
  www.betiresmart.org Be Tire Smart
Tire Valves صمامات نفخ الإطارات
  www.nbjinshun.com Ningbo JinShun Valves Industry Co., Ltd. is a professional manufacturer of Tire Valves and Valves Accessories. Ningbo Jinshun Valves Industry Co.LTD,  based in Ningbo , Zhejiang , China.

Wheels and Tires  الجنط

  www.americanwheelandtirelx.com American wheel and tire
  www.thepitstop.com The PitStop

Car Accessories  ملحقات السيارات

  www.AdcoProd.com Universal RV Cover
Large manufacturer Universal and Custom RV Covers.
  www.beverlybay.com Golf Cart Covers
Top quality golf cart covers as well as rain covers for you and your equipment.
  www.cobracaralarms.com.au Leaders in Aftermarket Automotive Accessories
  www.sunpro.com Performance accessories (Gauges & Tachometers)

Automotive Equipment and Tools Companies  شركات معدات وعدد السيارات

  www.addtools.net Automotive Digital Diagnostics Tools
BEIJING ADD-TECH CO., LTD
  www.americasprideonline.com America’s Pride
  www.autologicco.com Auto Logic Co.
  www.craftsman.com Crafts Man
  www.etoolcart.com e tool cart
  http://greatnecktools.com/  
  www.hunter.com  
  www.powerprobe.com Tools for the Automotive Industry
  www.snapon.com  
  www.tylertool.com  
  www.vetronix.com  

Car Safety  سلامة السيارات

  www.autosafety.org The Center for Auto Safety (CAS)
مركز آمان السيارات
  www.carsafe.org Automotive Safety Foundation (ASF)
  www.edccorp.com Engineering Dynamics Corporation (EDC), is a privately held company based in Beaverton, Oregon. EDC develops and markets simulation software and related services with over 1800 customers in 28 countries around the world. Customers include motor vehicle manufacturers, government agencies, universities and private engineering consulting firms. EDC’s mission is to drive the state-of-the-art in simulation technology employed by the vehicle safety industry. EDC’s goal is to provide the industry with the benefits of a single tool to improve vehicle safety and design during its entire life cycle, from the drawing board to the wrecking yard.
  www.euroncap.com Euro NCAP provides motoring consumers – both drivers and the automotive industry – with a realistic and independent assessment of the safety performance of some of the most popular cars sold in Europe.
  www.hse.gov.uk/mvr Health and safety in the motor vehicle repair (MVR) industry. Part of Health and Safety Executive (HSE).
  www.hsrc.unc.edu High way research center (University of North Carolina)
  www.iihs.org The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
معهد التأمينات لسلامة الطرق السريعة
  http://kidsandcars.org/ Kids and Cars
  www.madd.org Mothers Against Drunk Driving
  www.monash.edu.au Monash University Accident Research Centre (MUARC) is Australia’s largest injury prevention specialist
www.nhtsa.dot.gov National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)
الإدارة القومية لسلامة مرور الطرق السريعة
  www.safercar.gov Safe car
  www.safermotoring.co.uk Safer Motoring
  www.tiresafety.com Bridgestone is pleased to present TireSafety.com
in the interest of public safety
  www.trw.com TRW Automotive is among the world’s largest automotive suppliers and is one of the top financial performers in the industry, with 2009 sales of $11.6 billion.
  www.ukmot.com الفحص الدوريالإنجليزي UK Ministry of Transport
Safety Related Sites
  www.osha.gov
www.osha.gov/SLTC/motorvehiclesafety
Occupational Safety & Health Administration

Car Security أمان السيارة

  www.caralarm.com Car Alarm
  www.clifford.com  
  www.gps-buddy.com The easiest way of tracking and tracing your fleet
With the GPS-Buddy CONNECT you’ll enjoy the advantages and benefits offered by tracking and tracing. As a stand-alone product, the GPS-Buddy CONNECT transmits real-time information, so you know where your vehicle is at any given moment. Your vehicle’s location, speed and status is transmitted to the GPS-Buddy website every 60 seconds – providing the most accurate data ever!
  www.homelink.com HomeLink® by Johnson Controls has been making those connections from your vehicle to your home since 1995. HomeLink® is the original vehicle-based control system that allows you to communicate wirelessly from your vehicle to operate garage door openers, gate operators, home lighting, and more. It’s all about making your life more convenient and safe.
  www.onstar.com OnStar is the world’s most comprehensive in-vehicle safety, security and communication service. We can keep you safely connected in ways you never thought possible.

Automotive Books (Manuals) & Magazines  كتب السيارات, والكتالوجات, والمجلات

  www.ai-online.com Automotive Industries
  www.alldata.com
www.alldatadiy.com
All Data DIY (Do It Yourself)
  www.ap-magazine.com AP magazine, Asia-Pacific Trade News Magazine- Auto Parts
  www.autocar.co.uk Auto Car
  www.autoexpress.co.uk Auto Express
  www.automobilemag.com Automobile Magazine
  www.autonews.com Auto News
  www.autosport.com Auto Sport
  www.autoweek.com Auto Week
  www.canadiandriver.com Canadian Driver
  www.car-news.co.uk Car News (UK)
  www.caranddriver.com Car and Driver, Canada’s Online Auto Magazine
  www.cardesignnews.com Car Design News
  www.cartechbooks.com Car Tech Books
  www.chilton.cengage.com
www.chiltonpro.com
www.chiltondiy.com
Chilton, Auto manuals
Chilton Professionals (Pro)
Chilton Do it yourself (DIY)
  www.eautorepair.net e Auto Repair
  www.greencar.com Green Car Magazine
  www.haynes.com Haynes
  www.mitchell1.com Automotive repair information, auto repair data and diagnostics, auto repair manuals, auto maintenance, labor estimating, integrated repair, estimating, shop management software solutions.
  www.motor.com  
  www.motiontrends.com Motion Trends
  www.motortrend.com Motor Trend, a PRIMEDIA publication, was founded in 1949 and has a circulation of 1.1 million and a total readership of 7.1 million. Internationally recognized as the world’s number one automotive authority, Motor Trend is one of     the leading brands in automotive publishing. The Motor Trend brand is comprised of Motor Trend Classic, motortrend.com; Motor Trend Television; Motor Trend Radio; Truck Trend; Motor Trend International Auto Shows; Motor Trend en Espanol; several     international editions including China, Indonesia, Korea; and the renowned Motor Trend Car, Sport/Utility and Truck of the Year Awards program.
  www.roadandtrack.com Road & Track
  www.sae.org/automag Society of Automotive Engineering Magazine
  www.saudigear.com Saudi Gear المجلة الإليكترونية لرياضة المحركات
  www.trucktrend.com Truck Trend
  http://wardsauto.com/ Words Auto

Vehicle Testing اختبار السيارات

  www.avl.com AVL is the world’s largest privately owned company for development, simulation and testing technology of powertrains (hybrid, combustion engines, transmission, electric drive, batteries and software) for passenger cars, trucks and large engines.
  www.dspace.fr dSPACE is a leading producer of engineering tools for developing and testing mechatronic control systems. Learn more about us.
  www.maha.de Manufacturer of vehicle test stands for all application purposes. A pioneer and global leader in electronic brake testing technology specialized in the testing of safety-relevant components and driving quality of vehicles. (Roller brake testers, dynamometers, lifting technology)
  http://www.mts.com/en/vehicles/index.asp Efficient and Cost-Effective Automotive Testing Solutions for Ground Vehicle Manufacturers and Suppliers

With over four decades of ground vehicle testing expertise, MTS provides mechanical testing equipment, vehicle durability and performance testing, as well as automotive component testing for a broad spectrum of vehicle development applications.

  www.natc-ht.com NEVADA AUTOMOTIVE TEST CENTER

Auto Blogs مدونات السيارات

  www.autospies.com Auto Spies
  www.carblog.co.za Car Blog
  http://cartech.blogsarena.com/ The Car Tech Lady
  http://reviews.cnet.com/car-tech-blog/ cartech blog

Classic Cars السيارات الكلاسيك

  http://www.autotraderclassics.com Auto Trader Classics
  www.classicpassions.com Classic Passions Egypt’s Classic Automobile Official Website

Automotive Societies & Associations  جمعيات ومنظمات السيارات

  www.aa.co.nz
www.aa.co.za
New Zealand Automobile Association
The AA of South Africa
  www.aaa.com American Automobile Association

جمعية السيارات الأمريكية (AAA)

  www.aftermarket.org Automotive Aftermarket Industry Association (AAIA)
  www.aamva.org American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators
Serving an international Community of Motor Vehicle and law Enforcement Officials.
  www.acea.be European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association
  www.aftermarket.org The Automotive Aftermarket Industry Association (AAIA),
the only automotive aftermarket trade association that represents the shared interests of manufacturers, distributors, retailers, service and repair businesses, program groups, manufacturers’ reps, educators, publishers and other specialized membership organizations.
  www.aftermarketsuppliers.org Automotive Aftermarket  Suppliers Association (AASA).
  www.aiag.org Automotive Industry Action Group (AIAG), a consortium composed of hundreds of participating companies, have established rules and procedures that ensure parts meet strict quality levels.
  www.aiam.org Association of International Automobile Manufacturers (AIAM)
  www.autolift.org Automotive Lift Institute
  www.apra.org Automotive Parts Rebuilders Association (APRA)
  www.asashop.org Automotive Service Association (ASA)
  www.ase.com Automotive Service Excellence
ASE’s mission is to improve the quality of vehicle repair and service through the testing and certification of repair and service professionals.
جودة خدمة السيارات
  www.classiccarclub.org The Classic Car Club of America (CCCA)
نادي السيارات الكلاسيكية الأمريكي
  www.etrto.org The European Tyre and Rim Technical Organisation
  www.fcai.com.au Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries.
  www.fia.com
www.fiafoundation.org
Federation Internationale de l’Automobile
المنظمة الدولية للسيارات
  www.iatn.net The International Automotive Technicians’ Network
The International Automotive Technicians’ Network is the largest network of automotive repair professionals in the world: a group of 70,140 from 154 countries. The members of this group exchange technical knowledge with their peers around the globe, sharing over 1 million years of experience.
  www.iihs.org The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
  www.jama-english.jp Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Inc.(JAMA)
  www.automotivesupplier.org MEMA exclusively represents and serves manufacturers of motor vehicle components, tools and equipment, automotive chemicals, and related products used in the production, repair, and maintenance of all classes of motor vehicles.

MEMA is comprised of three market segment associations (MSAs): the Automotive Aftermarket Suppliers Association (AASA), the Heavy Duty Manufacturers Association (HDMA), and the Original Equipment Suppliers Association (OESA).

  www.motor.org.uk The Institute of the Motor Industry
  www.motorist.org Motorist Assurance Program
  www.nada.org National Automobile Dealers Association (NADA)
المنظمة الوطنية لوكلاء السيارات
  www.nhtsa.dot.gov National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
الإدارة الوطنية لسلامة الطرق السريعة
  www.oica.net Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d’Automobiles
(International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers)
OICA members represent the global auto industry that drives economic progress. Through our autos, we connect people, products and services to enhance quality of life and sustainable automobility. We are committed to technological innovation in the areas of safety, environment, fuel efficiency, and we seek global harmonization of safety and environmental standards to benefit all countries.
  www.rma.org Rubber Manufacturers Association (RMA)
  www.rv.com RV Consumer Group
  www.sae.org
www.sae-a.com.au
Society of Automotive Engineers
Society of Automotive Engineers Australia
جمعية مهندسي السيارات
  www.sema.org Specialty  Equipment Market Association
A love for cars, trucks and SUVs is the motivating force behind the Specialty Equipment Market Association (SEMA). This trade association consists of a diverse group of manufacturers, distributors, retailers, publishing companies, auto restorers, street rod builders, restylers, car clubs, race teams and more.
  www.theaa.com The AA (Automotive Association (UK)
  www.us-tra.org The Tire and Rim Association, Inc.
  www.uscar.org United States Council For Automotive Research

Automotive Training, Education and Research  أبحاث, وتعليم, وتدريب السيارات

  www.atttraining.com ATT excels in the development of premium multimedia training materials. The first market focus was automotive training. Having invested over £1m/$2m in the development of Automotive Technician Training, the company now enjoys a market leading position in the UK and growing sales in the USA
  www.autoed.com  
  www.automotive-schools.us مدارس السيارات بأمريكا
  http://81.131.251.169/website/ata.html Automotive Training Academy UK (ATA)
  www.automotivetechnician.org.uk
http://www.automotivemanagement.org.uk/
Automotive Technician Accreditation (ATA)
Automotive Management Accreditation (AMA)
  www.autoshop101.com  
  http://www.autotap.com/ AutoTap Express DIY links the special OBDII (CAN) plug-in- port under your dash of your car or light truck to your computer.
  www.autozine.org/technical_school/handling/tech_handling_6.htm AutoZine Technical School
  www.clemson.edu/autoresearch Clemson University International Center for Automotive Research
مركز أبحاث السيارات الدولي لجامعة كليمسون
  www.howautowork.com How Auto Work
  www.mitcalc.com Mechanical, Industrial and Technical Calculations
  http://motorsports.uncc.edu/  
  www.natef.org National Automotive Technicians Education Foundation (NATEF)
 
  www.nccar.us North Carolina Center of Automotive Research
مركز أبحاث السيارات بولاية نورث كارولينا
  www.pti.psu.edu Pennsylvania transportation institute
مركز أبحاث النقل بولاية بينسيلفينيا
  www.sjahi.org المعهد العالي السعودي الباباني للسيارات
Saudi Japanese Automotive High Institute
  www.technolab.org Techno lap
  http://www.trainingbay.cengage.com/
http://www.techniciantraining.com
Comprehensive Education, Training, and Information Solutions Provider for the Automotive and Trucking Industries
  http://www.tu-berlin.de/menue/home/parameter/en/ Berlin University of Technology
  www.uti.edu Universal Technical Institute, Inc.
  www.vtti.vt.edu Virginia Tech Transportation Institute
معهد فرجينيا تيك للنقل

Automotive Information & Websites  معلومات, ومواقع السيارات

  www.2carpros.com 2CarPros.com is the ultimate, self-empowering, problem-solving expert, D-I-Y car ownership, maintenance and repair community. With honest, tried and tested, money and time-saving tools and resources for owners, enthusiasts and mechanics based on the collective intelligence of auto professionals and users alike.
  www.aa1car.com  
  www.apra.org Automotive Parts Remanufacturers Association
  www.autoblog.com Auto Blog
  www.autoclassroom.com Auto Classroom
  http://www.autodata.ltd.uk Autodata’s core business is the research, compilation and creation of technical information for use in independent automotive workshops for the repair and service of cars, motorcycles and commercial vehicles.
  www.auto-dictionary.com معجم مصطلحات ومعاني المفردات الخاصة بالسيارات
  www.auto.howstuffworks.com  
  www.autoeducation.com Auto Education,  An online learning resource which will help you learn more about auto repair and maintenance topics.
  www.autoindustry.co.uk صناعة السيارات بالمملكة المتحدة
  www.autos.com/autos  
  www.autoshop101.com Auto Shop 101
  www.autotap.com  
  www.autozine.org  
  www.canadiandriver.com Canadian Driver
  www.carbibles.com Car Bibles
  www.carcare.org العناية بالسيارة
  www.cardesignnews.com أخبار تصميم السيارات
  www.carfax.com Vehicle History Reports
  www.cartalk.com Car Talk
  www.cdxetextbook.com CDX Online eTextbook
  www.clarks-garage.com Clark‘s Garage Shop Manual
  www.china-motors.ru/english اخبار صناعة السيارات في الصين
  www.driveclean.ca.gov Drive Clean
  www.drivers.com About PDE Publications Inc.
We specialize in driving, driver behavior, and traffic safety. Our web site at Drivers.com is an information resource for both traffic safety professionals and the general public, with a wealth of information on driver training, education, and licensing
  www.edmunds.com  
  www.eere.energy.gov الوقود البديل
  www.familycar.com
http://www.automd.com
Family Car
  http://www.gridwatch.com Car Dealer links – Gives A-Z listings of manufacturers, suppliers and distributors. There is also a list of brand names arranged by product with supplier cross references.
  www.gocar.com Go Car
  www.greencar.com Green Car, your source for information on electric cars, hybrids and more
  http://horsepowersports.com/ Horse Power Sports
  www.howautowork.com How Auto Work
  www.imperialclub.com  
  www.innerauto.com Inner Auto
  www.kbb.com Kelley Blue Book
كتاب أسعار السيارات المستعملة
  www.mitchellrepair.com Mitchell repair
  www.mixedpower.com موقع للسيارات المهجنة
  www.myride.com My ride
  www.nadaguides.com Vehicle Pricing & Information
New Car Prices, Old Car Values, New Car Reviews & Car Buying Guides.(National Automobile Dealers Association)
أسعار ومعلومات السيارات- أسعار السيارات الجديدة, قيمة السيارات القديمة, تقرير عن السيارات الجديدة, دليل شراء السيارة
  http://repairpal.com/ Repair Pal
  www.student-automotive.com  
  www.theaircar.com The air car
  www.theautochannel.com The auto channel
  www.thecarconnection.com The car connection
  www.topgear.com/uk/
www.topgear.com/au
TV listings for Top Gear on BBC
  www.topspeed.com Top Speed
  www.torquecars.com This site is the ultimate car Modification guide to improve your car and contains styling tips, performance car tuning modification tips, galleries and car specific projects along with updates on the very latest car tuning trends and parts for all tuners and car modification projects.
  www.trinbagoauto.com  
  www.ukcar.com  
  www.ultimatecarpage.com Ultimate car page
  www.whiteline.com.au White Line
  http://wikicars.org/en/Main_Page Wiki Cars
  www.youfixcars.com You Fix Cars

Auto Sports سباقات السيارات

  www.autosport.com  
  www.indycar.com  
  www.formula1.com Formula 1
  www.mercedes-benz.com/motorsport  
  www.motorsport.com  
  www.nascar.com NASCAR
  www.wrc.com World Rally Championship – WRC official website
Performance Products منتجات زيادة قدرة المحرك وتحسين الأداء
  www.holley.co  

Auto Museums متاحف السيارات

  automuseum.org National Automobile Museum
Reno, NV, USA
  www.collection-schlumpf.com/en/schlumpf/ The National Automobile Museum (Schlumpf Collection)
Alsace, France
  corvettemuseum.com The National Corvette Museum
Bowling Green, Ky., USA
  emaymuseum.org Harold E. LeMay Museum
Tacoma, Wash., USA
  emmr.org Eastern Museum of Motor Racing
York Springs, Pa., USA
  www.hfmgv.org Henry Ford Museum & Greenfield Village
Dearborn, Mich., USA
  lindianapolismotorspeedway.com/museum Indianapolis Motor Speedway Hall of Fame Museum
Speedway, Ind., USA
  www.museum-mercedes-benz.com/?lang=en Mercedes-Benz Museum
Stuttgart, Germany
www.mbusi.com/pages/vc_home.asp MBUSI Visitor Center
Tuscaloosa County, Alabama, USA
  msichicago.org Auto Collection, Museum of Science & Industry
Chicago, IL, USA
  ohtm.org The Owls Head Transportation Museum
Owls Head, Maine, USA
  pcmaf.org/auto.htm Montana Auto Museum
Deer Lodge, Mont., USA
  petersen.org Petersen Automotive Museum
Los Angeles, CA, USA
Auto Shows معارض السيارات
  http://www.aapexshow.com/ The Automotive Aftermarket Products Expo (AAPEX)
  http://www.semashow.com/ Sociality Equipment Market Accociation (SEMA)

Petrol & Oil Product Companies  شركات منتجات البترول والزيوت

  www.bp.com  
  www.caltex.com  
  www.castrol.com  
  www.chevron.com
www.chevronenergy.com
 
  www.exxonmobil.com  
  www.gulfoil.com  
  www.mobil.com شركة موبيل للبترول
  www.shell.com شركة شل للبترول
  www.texaco.com  

Related Websites مواقع ذات علاقة

  www.acore.org American Council On Renewable Energy
المجلس الأمريكي للطاقة المتجددة
  www.ajac.ca Automobile Journalists Association of Canada AJAC
رابطة كتاب صحافة السيارات الكندي
  www.bts.gov Research and Innovation Technology Administration
Bureau of Transportation Statistics

مكتب إحصائيات النقل

  www.census.gov مكتب الإحصائيات الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية
Census Bureau
  www.commerce.gov قسم التجارة الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية
Department of Commerce
   

www.eere.energy.gov

 

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (U.S. Department of Energy) www.energy.gov
كفاءة الطاقة والطاقة المتجددة (قسم الطاقة الأمريكي)
  www.epa.gov U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
الوكالة الأمريكية لحماية البيئة
  www.dot.gov U.S. Department of Transportation

 

قسم النقل الأمريكي
  www.eere.energy.gov Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy
كفاءة الطاقة و الطاقة المتجددة (قسم الطاقة الأمريكي)
  www.emerson.com  
  www.entranltd.co.uk Entran Ltd is an independent Environmental and Transportation consultancy with specific abilities and expertise in traffic engineering, transportation planning, environmental impact assessment, air quality and noise assessments and monitoring. Central to Entran’s philosophy is the provision of appropriate high quality advice and guidance on all aspects of all projects to all clients, thus ensuring delivery of commercially focused solutions.
  www.entransensors.co.uk Entran Sensors
  www.fmcsa.dot.gov The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) is focused on reducing crashes, injuries, and fatalities involving large trucks and buses.
  www.force-dynamics.com A driving simulator
  www.fueleconomy.gov

 

Fuel Economy
اقتصاديات الوقود
  www.garmin.com Create navigation and communication devices.
  www.globaldenso.com/en/

www.denso.co.jp/en/

Global Supplier of automotive technology, systems and components.

المورد العالمي لتقنيةونظموأجزاء السيارات

  www.motormaxtoy.com Motormax manufactures die cast and plastic replicas of various kinds of vehicles including cars, planes and motorcycles. Our car replicas are made in various scales ranging from 1:64 up to 1:12. (Toy factory)
نماذج سيارات
  www.ntsb.gov National Transportation Safety Board

اللجنة القومية لأمن المواصلات

  www.oee.nrcan.gc.ca Office of energy efficiency- Canada

مكتب كفاءة الطاقةكندا

  www.oica.net INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION OF MOTOR VEHICLE MANUFACTURERS

المنظمة العالمية لمصنعي المركبات

  www.penske.com
www.penskeautomotive.com
Unique in its heritage and formidable in its national and international scope, Penske Corporation is a closely held transportation services company that encompasses retail automotive sales and services, truck leasing, supply chain logistics management, transportation components manufacturing, and high-performance racing.
  www.transportation.anl.gov/ Argonne National Laboratory
Transportation Technology R&D Center

تقنية النقل مركز الأبحاث والتطوير (قسم الطاقة الأمريكي)

  www.arb.ca.gov Air Resources Board
إدارة مصادر الهواء
Measurement قياس
  www.bksv.com Brüel & Kjær is a world leading manufacturer and supplier of sound and vibration solutions.
Training تدريب
  www.cord.org The Center for Occupational Research and Development (CORD) is a national nonprofit organization dedicated to leading change in education.
مركز الأبحاث والتطوير المهني
  www.unevoc.unesco.org United Nation International Center for Technical and Vocational Education and Training
المركز الدولي للتعليم التقني والمهني والتدريب

Car & Truck Rental Agencies شركات تأجير السيارات

  www.alamo.com  
  www.avis.com  
  www.budget.com .
  www.dollar.com  
  www.enterprise.com  
  www.ezrac.co
www.e-zrentacar.com
 
  www.hertz.com  
  www.nationalcar.com  
  www.rent-a-wreck.com  
  www.thrifty.com  
Truck Rental & Moving Trucks
  www.budgettruck.com  
  www.enterprisetrucks.com  
  www.pensketruckrental.com  
  www.ryder.com  
  www.uhaul.com  

Arabic Websites مواقع عربية للسيارات

  www.aaauae.com Arabian Automobile Association
  www.acdelcoarabia.com AC Delco Arabia
  www.al-kadi.com تصنيع هياكل السيارات,قطع الشاحنات والمقطورات, مركز السيارات
  www.arabianaxles.com
www.masabik.com
Arabian Axles & Masabik
المحاور العربية و مسابك
  www.aroso.org Arab Road Safety Organization
المنظمة العربية للسلامة المرورية
  http://www.asu-auto.com Automotive pollution control lab
معمل التحكم في التلوث- كلية الهندسة جامعة عين شمس
  www.ballorat.com
www.ballorat.org
البلورات المضيئة
Electronic Cars Database
  www.carcare.com.sa Car care العناية بالسيارةكاركير
  http://contactcars.com  
  http://www.deetools.com Digital Equipments Tools
  www.etariauto.com إطاري
  www.gecuae.com Gulf Automobiles Industry Corp.
الشركة الخليجية لصناعة السيارات
  www.gokarts-atvs.com درجات نارية- سيارات رملية- مقطورات- سيارات قولف كهربائية Go Karts & ATVs
  www.hazzatractors.com الهزاع للمعدات الثقيلة
  www.kacst.edu.sa مدينة الملك عبد العزيز للعلوم والتقنية
  www.mot.gov.sa Ministry of Transport- KSA
وزارة النقلالسعودية
  http://www.jtc.com.sa/ مركز الجفالي للتدريب
  www.my-auto-prof.com المحترف للمركبات
  http://www.prevention.org.tn/AR/ الجمعية التونسية للوقاية من حوادث الطرقات
  www.saferoadsociety.com الجمعية المصرية لسلامة الطريق
  www.rt.gov.sa إدارة المرور منطقة الرياض
Riyadh Region Traffic
REDCAP www.redcapauto.com مركز العناية بالسيارات Total Car Care Center
  www.saher.gov.sa ساهر / الإدارة العامة للمرورالسعودية
  www.sas-co.com.sa Saudi Advanced Services Co. (SAS)
الشركة السعودية للخدمات المتقدمة- ساس
  http://www.asugards.net/ ASU Sound & Vibration Lab
معمل الصوتيات والاهتزازات – هندسة عين شمس
  www.trafficsafety.org.sa اللجنة الوطنية لسلامة المرور- السعودية
  www.yellowhat.ae Yellow Hat (Japan)                                بالأمارات المتحدة
  www.yemni.com وكلاء سيارات (شركة اليمني للسيارات)
  www.zahidgroup.com
www.zahid.com
مجموعة شركات الزاهد
مواقع عربية ذات علاقة:
  www.elearning.edu.sa e-Learning & Training Recourses Center
مركز التدريب الإليكتروني ومصادر التدريب
المؤسسة  العامة  للتدريب التقني والمهني
  www.tvtc.gov.sa
http://cdd.tvtc.gov.sa/
Technical and Vocational Training Corporation  المؤسسة  العامة  للتدريب التقني والمهني
  www.rct.edu.sa Collage of Technology- Riyadh
الكلية  التقنية  بالرياض
  http://www.roadsafety.ae Road Safety
هيئة الصحة- قيادة آمنة- أبو ظبي

French Auto Sites مواقع فرنسية للسيارات

  www.autonews.fr  
  www.dspace.fr dSPACE is a leading producer of engineering tools for developing and testing mechatronic control systems. Learn more about us.
  www.sia.fr The SIA (Société des Ingénieurs de l’Automobile – French Automotive Engineers Society)
  http://voitures.lesclesdumidi.com/  

Motorcycles الدراجات البخارية

  www.bajajauto.com  
  www.bmwmotorcycles.com BMW Motorcycles
  www.harley-davidson.com  
  www.jawamotorcycles.co.uk JAWA Motorcycles
  www.motorcycle.co.uk  
  www.vincentmotors.com  

Traffic المرور

  www.metrocount.com Vehicle traffic counters.  With clients in over 85 countries, MetroCount are world leaders in the design and manufacture of road traffic monitoring systems and software.
     

مواقع تهمك

Your Car Repair Guide
تحويل الوحدات
The Engineering tool box
Engineering Calculators
Car Recalls
أشهر 10 متاحف سيارات بالولايات المتحدة الأمريكية
Animated Engines
Auto Techs. Info
www.troublecodes.net
مقارنة السيارات
مقارنة السيارات: فيدو اختبار التصادم
قائمة صنّاع السيارات بأمريكا

www.kar4kids.com موقع خيري للتبرع بالسيارة لمساعدة الأطفال- أمريكا

Auto directory websites:
www.autopedia.be
www.autoelf.com

 

Our web site links are listed as a convenience for our visitors. We carefully review every site. Our directory goal is to present valuable resources. If you use these links, we take no responsibility and give no guarantees, warranties or representations, implied or otherwise, for the content or accuracy of these third-party sites.

J 2006, www.thecartech.com د/ قاسم مراد (تقنية السيارات)

 

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Learn Xtra page

http://www.mindset.co.za/learn/xtra

This is the Learn Xtra page, your gateway to resources and support to help you succeed. We have an exciting line up for you this year with full time grade 12 exam support in July, October and November. We will also be adding Geography to the line up.

For all you grade 10 and 11’s you’ll be pleased to know that we have heard your cries and will be developing Learn Xtra content just for you. We hope to have all the grade 11 stuff out by July.

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THE ART OF SHOPLIFTING

Quite a few people have written in to ask when there will be more blogs. For the moment, there isn’t anything new, but as the weather is freezing, I thought I’d re-post the rather strange story by Flann O’ Neill of his escapades in Tesco’s during a very hot summer, a couple of years ago. For those outside the UK, Tesco’s is the most successful supermarket in the UK – a bit like Wal-Mart in the US.

I don’t know if you’re aware that there’s a rather nice café in Russell Square. It’s in the garden of the square itself and is a great place to hang out when the weather is unbelievably hot, as it has been these past few weeks. Last week, I was sitting outside the café under the welcome shade of the huge plane trees, finishing off an amazing book called The Maimed by a writer called Herman Ungar. If you ever see a copy, buy it; you won’t be disappointed. I might add that it’s not for the faint-hearted and those of you with a bit of a nervous disposition should probably pass it over (now where have I read that before?). As a little taster, I’d like to quote from Stefan Zweig who, after reading the book said, “wonderful and horrible, captivating and repulsive. Unforgettable, although one would be glad to forget it”.

Anyway, it was late afternoon and after two large cups of black coffee, supplemented by a few drams of slivovitz from my hip flask, I turned the last page of The Maimed with some regret. I don’t know about you, but when I’m coming to the end of a great book, I get these sort of pangs of loss. Not horrible, I must add – a sort of wistfulness might be a better description. Well, after finishing the book, I thought it was high time that I got down to Tesco’s to buy something for dinner. Shamus was expecting me back and I was running a little late. I left the square and made my way to the British Museum intending to take the back doubles leading to Covent Garden where there’s a Tesco Metro store. From there it’s a short walk to Shamus’ apartment, just on the other side of Waterloo Bridge.

I turned into Museum Street and was waiting at the pedestrian crossing, when a remarkable looking old lady joined me. I say old, but how old is anyone’s guess. Certainly in her seventies or eighties, perhaps even older. She was very tall, wore a long flowing blue and white flowered dress and a huge, wide-brimmed straw hat and carried herself in a most regal manner. I probably wouldn’t have paid much attention if she hadn’t been pulling an enormous shopping basket on wheels, which was nearly as big as she was. Attached to the back of this basket was some sort of large gadget with a digital display, which flashed on and off and gave an occasional bleep. Well, the traffic stopped to allow us to cross and to my surprise she set off at such a speed that she’d reached the other side before I’d got halfway across. Now, I’m a pretty quick walker, but she was incredible! As she turned into Coptic Street, I became intrigued and quickened my pace with the intention of following her for a while.

I needed to take really long strides to keep her in sight. As I followed her over New Oxford Street, down towards Shaftsbury Avenue and then across to Neal Street, I could feel myself sweating profusely. All my clothes were sticking to me and I was
getting short of breath. With the sun beating down relentlessly, I wondered how long I’d be able to keep up the pace. Although I was becoming more and more distressed as I stumbled and half ran after her, I remember being a little cheered by the fact that we were at least taking the same route I would have travelled to get to Tesco’s. And I couldn’t help being fascinated by the way this woman walked. She had very long legs and moved with such purpose that she kept disappearing from sight. It was all I could do to keep up. Her gait seemed, at times, almost military and I started to wonder if this person was a man.

I cast my mind back to when I had first gazed upon her face outside the British Museum. Did I remember a rather dark shadowy chin? It was difficult to say. Although her dress was long, the bottom part was flapping wildly and revealed her legs as she sped along the street. If I could get a bit closer, I’d be able to see if they were hairy. I tried to catch her up, but it was no use. Short of running, I’d never get any nearer as she whizzed up Neal Street and past Covent Garden underground station. I saw her turn smartly into Floral Street and disappear. As she was still travelling the exact route I would have taken to reach Tesco’s, I thought I’d make one last effort even though I was almost completely exhausted. I staggered round the corner into Floral Street and had only gone a few paces when I nearly bumped into her.

She was gazing at the men’s suits in the window of Paul Smith, looking very calm and collected and smoking a foul smelling cigarette, which was inserted into a very long holder. I stood there puffing and panting with sweat running down all over me and tried to think of something to say. Eventually, I blurted out some unintelligible remark about the heat. It must have sounded like gibberish, because she only gave me a cursory glance, then turned her attention back to the suits. In an act of desperation, I collapsed to the ground beside her and pretended to faint. I closed my eyes for a few seconds, but opened them again when she did a smart about turn and flew off down Floral Street dragging the enormous shopping basket behind her. With some difficulty, I got to my feet and set off once again in pursuit. I was annoyed with myself, because I hadn’t been able to get a very good look at her face and more importantly, to see whether she had hairy legs. My annoyance turned to joy when, after scuttling down the narrow alleyway that joins Floral Street with Garrick Street, she hurtled across the road and disappeared into the Tesco Metro store. Although I was feeling dreadful, it was comforting to think that I would now be able to cool down in the air conditioned building and have the opportunity of observing my quarry at close quarters. With an internal sigh of relief, I picked up a basket at the entrance and walked into the store.

The coolness of the air-conditioned store put me in a better frame of mind; such a difference from the unbearable heat outside. There was no sign of the woman, so with basket in hand, I went to seek her out. I was walking down the aisle where all the ready meals, sausages and yoghurts are on display, wondering where she was, when I had a flash of inspiration. If you were going to fill up a huge shopping basket on wheels, you’d put all the heavy stuff at the bottom so the thing wouldn’t topple over. Heavy things would include bottles of wine or spirits. Sure enough, I found her at the chilled wine section stuffing her basket with bottles of champagne. It was rather strange to watch and I sidled up closer to get a better look. The basket was so tall, that you couldn’t put something in at the top and place it on the bottom; nobody has arms that long. Well, she had this device, which was a piece of rectangular wood with a broom handle nailed in the centre. It was a bit like an upside down bird table. She put two bottles on the piece of wood, one each side of the broom handle, then, with remarkable dexterity and no little élan, she lifted the whole thing up and slid it to the bottom of the basket. I think she took six, or maybe even eight bottles. Then, with device in one hand and the other pulling the shopping basket, she elegantly made her way to the spirits section.

I now had the opportunity of examining her more closely. She was a very striking figure with a quite aristocratic looking face. She could have been a duchess, or maybe Stephen Fry’s mother. Actually, I don’t think she had any royal blood; she looked far too intelligent. But although unusually tall, rather too tall perhaps, she was extremely thin, emaciated almost and it was difficult to imagine how she was able wear the huge pearl necklaces, heavy rings on each finger and the multitude of bracelets, without actually falling over. I stepped a bit closer and pretended to examine a bottle of Jim Beam whiskey while glancing at her whenever the opportunity arose. She was wearing a lot of makeup, perhaps too much, and I didn’t see any evidence of the five o’clock shadow I was looking for. The smell of lavender that I’d detected while standing some distance from her now became overpowering. It was sickly and pungent and in Stefan Zweig’s words, “captivating but repulsive”.

While she was loading bottles of gin into the basket, I took the opportunity of pretending to look at the shelves nearest the floor in order to get a better view of her legs. Her dress came down almost to her ankles and although I spotted a few dark hairs through a slit, which extended down from the knees, I was unable to observe anything that would prove conclusive. It was then I heard her speak. As a member of staff was passing by, she addressed the young man in a very deep husky voice with clipped syllables. “I say, excuse me, is there any more Tanqueray gin?” The assistant said something to the effect that he didn’t think there was, but he’d check and report back, upon which she turned back to the shelves and continued loading her basket with bottles of Gordon’s gin, De Kuyper cherry brandy, Glenmorangie malt whisky and Tesco’s own brand vodka. By now, the basket was about three quarters full and must have been extremely heavy. Not that she seemed to notice. After popping in a small bottle of angostura bitters, almost as an afterthought, she grabbed hold of the handle and whisked her bulging basket of booty off to the chilled food section at high speed. I watched with amazement as she quickly filled up her basket, almost to the brim, with several packets of sausages, meat pies and a huge assortment of soft cheeses. I say amazement, because it was impossible to reconcile the huge amount of very fattening food with this tall, extremely thin woman who, in some ways, resembled a walking skeleton.

It was while she was topping off her load with Green and Black’s organic dark chocolate that the commotion started. We were near the checkout tills where I observed three or four members of staff wrestling with a man wearing a rather shabby coat and an even shabbier hat. Punches were thrown and eventually, he was brought to the ground with all these men sitting on top of him. He was shouting and swearing and some of the customers were remonstrating with the staff and protesting loudly at the brutal treatment being meted out. The place was in complete uproar, with more staff arriving by the minute. I thought it a good opportunity to strike up conversation with this strange woman and turned to her intending to make some remark or other about the fracas. However, she was bent over and was fiddling with the gadget attached to the back of the basket. I saw some flashing lights and heard bleeping sounds emanating from the device. She then stood up straight and ignoring the checkout tills, made her way swiftly to the exit, guiding the basket expertly through the throng of customers and staff. I followed her as far as the doughnut cabinet. By this time, the police were arriving with sirens blaring. I saw her stop at the threshold of the exit door and move the basket delicately to one side to allow the half a dozen or so officers of the law to rush into the store. She then coolly adjusted the brim of her hat and with gadget bleeping, exited the store and disappeared down Bedford Street.

At this point, I wasn’t quite sure what to do. I needed some shopping and although I couldn’t be sure, I had thought that the man lying prostrate with several members of staff sitting on him looked a little like Shamus. I decided to stick around and watch the proceedings with the other customers before buying something for dinner. It would have been good to follow the woman and continue the adventure, but I decided against it. Unfortunately, I didn’t get a glimpse of the man, because the police hauled him out of the store in a horizontal position and he was completely surrounded as he made his ignominious exit. I have to say that, as I completed my own shopping and made my way to the checkout, I became rather concerned. After all, the man did look a little like Shamus. Was it, could it have been him?

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移民政策有变 澳低技术移民申请被作废

据美联社报道,澳大利亚政府近日大幅修改了移民政策,将转而吸引如医生、护士、工程师等高技术人才,而像厨师、理发室和会计等低技术含量的移民,可能要被
拒之门外。

根据最新公布的移民政策,未来澳大利亚将优先考虑英文水平较高,并且有澳大利亚籍担保人的技术移民。

澳移民部长埃文斯9日表示,与以往政策相比,新推出的政策对移民英语水平要求更高,选择的技术移民专业更具针对性。预计未来新移民政策更倾向于接纳来自医
疗、工程、采矿等高技能行业的移民,而凭借烹饪、理发等较低技能申请澳大利亚永久居留权的移民,很难通过审核。

埃文斯称,即日起所有在2007年9月1日以前递交的较低技能移民申请宣告作废,政府将退还总计1400万澳元的申请费。

新移民政策将废除当前涵盖106种职业的紧缺职业名单。埃尔斯表示,在移民澳大利亚的外国人中,只有半数拥有紧缺职业名单列出技能的人找到相应工作,三分
之一的人失业或从事低技术含量工作。

但反对党警告说,调整技术移民政策将破坏澳大利亚的海外声誉。反对党移民事务发言人斯科特·莫里森表示,这些变更的背后是巨大的过渡性成本,同时对国际教
育部门产生较大影响。因为很多外国学生已在攻读紧缺职业名单上列出的课程,而现在,他们学的东西很可能对他们入籍毫无帮助。莫里森说:“很多学生将陷入进
退两难的境地。除此之外,吸收外国学生的大学也将面临很大压力,我怀疑将有很多学校无力应对这种局面而倒闭。这会对就业产生影响。”

澳大利亚修改移民政策,让许多原本打算申请永久居留权的中国留学生进退两难。目前摆在他们面前的只有三条路:要么继续等,要么换专业,要么回国。有中国留
学生抱怨:“之前我交了十几万元人民币上学,为的就是毕业后能留下来,但现在看来钱都打水漂了。”

不过,澳大利亚驻华大使馆教育参赞裴崐廷劝告中国留学生不要那么悲观:澳大利亚目前紧缺的职业,一年后或许就不再紧缺。因此,学生应该根据自己的职业愿
景,而不是根据移民加分的因素来选择课程。

最近收紧移民政策的不只澳大利亚一国,英国也加强了对移民的限制。英国政府7日宣布,来自印度以及其他非欧洲国家的学生如果希望在英国留学,必须通过更为
严格的英语考试;学习短期课程的外国学生不能携带家属。英国内政大臣艾伦·约翰逊表示,这些立即生效的规定还包括限制外国学生在英国的打工时间。

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非洲32个国家最低收入超中国

作者刘植荣(图片来自作者新浪博客)

核心提示:
我(作者)也考察了世界最穷的非洲,那里与我想象的原始与野蛮判若两个社会——有32个国家的最低收入超过中国,一些国家虽然贫穷,但人民却也安居乐业。

我考察了世界最富的欧洲,那里与从课本上所了解的资本主义判若两个社会——国家财富惠及每个百姓,低收入群体享受数百种福利,有的城市公交免费,政府为市
民免费提供自行车,百姓不再为生老病死担忧。

我也考察了世界最穷的非洲,那里与我想象的原始与野蛮判若两个社会——有32个国家的最低收入超过中国,一些国家虽然贫穷,但人民却也安居乐业。

我更了解中国——这些年来,贫富差距越拉越大,带来诸如暴力、偷盗抢劫、自杀、绑架等许多社会问题,由于百姓的收入过低,导致国民购买力不足,难以使经济
持久繁荣。

我注意到,一些官员到国外考察,回来只讲外国公务员工资如何之高、福利如何之好,只字不提外国百姓的工资是中国的40倍、外国百姓的福利比公务员多得多。

于是,我系统研究了世界183个国家和地区(含中国台湾、香港和澳门3个地区,欠梵蒂冈、巴勒斯坦、吉布提、埃及、赤道几内亚、斐济、几内亚、朝鲜、马其
顿、莫桑比克、瑙鲁、卡塔尔、索马里、锡金和列支敦士登15个国家)的工资制度,供决策者参考。

为了便于网络转播,本文省略注解和研究分析过程及图表。数据来源为世界银行、国际货币基金组织、亚洲银行、非洲银行、国际劳联、欧盟、经合组织、各国统计
局及劳工部,引用数据除注明外均为最新数据。为了便于比较,货币均换算成人民币元。

一、最低工资标准与最低年收入

世界多数国家用法律规定最低工资标准,并根据经济状况定期或不定期调整。在规定最低工资的国家中,60%的国家只规定一个标准,40%的国家对不同工种规
定不同最低工资标准,为了便于比较,在有不同的最低工资时,本文只采用最低的数据。

1.规定最低月工资。这样的国家最多,如:卢森堡16420元/月,冰岛14993元/月,比利时
14407元/月,荷兰13820元/月,奥地利10000元/月,安道尔8979元/月,塞浦路斯7890元/月,希腊7400元/月,西班牙7280
元/月,以色列6853元/月(或平均工资的47.5%),马耳他6300元/月,斯洛文尼亚5890元/月,葡萄牙5250元/月,捷克3060元
/月,斯洛伐克2960元/月,土耳其2860元/月,波兰2810元/月,爱沙尼亚2780元/月,匈牙利2700元/月,拉托维亚2540元/月,立
陶宛2320元/月,智利2310元/月,阿根廷2232元/月,俄罗斯1921元/月,巴西1790元/月,罗马尼亚1530元/月,伊朗1518元
/月,阿尔及利亚1500元/月,秘鲁1298元/月,保加利亚1230元/月,加蓬1200元/月,科威特960元/月,刚果810元/月,巴基斯坦
486元/月,利比里亚442元/月,喀麦隆424元/月,柬埔寨392元/月,越南320元/月。

2.规定最低小时工资。这样的国家有德国81.5元/小时(西部)和65.8元/小时(东部),新西兰60.80元/小时,日本60.29元/小时,加拿
大54.45元/小时,美国50.75元/小时,韩国24元/小时,马绍尔14元/小时。

3.同时规定最低小时工资或日工资以及最低月工资或最低周工资。这样的国家有摩纳哥92.61元/小时或14046元/月,法国88.20元/小时或
13377元/月,爱尔兰86.5元/小时或
14620元/月,安道尔是71.80元/小时或8979元/月,英国64.66元/小时或10100元/月,澳大利亚87.29元/小时或3317元
/周,荷兰646元/日或3228元/周或13986元/月。

4.规定最低工资的同时规定强制性奖金。有几个国家除了法律规定最低工资外,还强制支付年终奖金和生活津贴,如马耳他1424元/周+2703元年终
奖+2420元年生活津贴。

5.法律不规定最低工资,由劳资双方协议规定。一些工会组织较好的资本主义国家工人经过多年的斗争,整体工资水平较高,国家无需再用法律的形式规定最低工
资,工资标准通过劳动合同的方式规定,但有个公认的标准,如:瑞典22700元/月,瑞士20838元/月(非熟练工)和26374元/月(熟练工),奥
地利11667元/月。

6.由于各国政府对领最低工资的人给予减免税和多种福利,这样,领取最低工资的人的年收入实际要搞出工资很多,因此,分析各国领取最低工资者的年收入能更
准确地反映其收入情况。

世界183个国家和地区的最低收入平均为41535元,排在前20名的国家除澳大利亚、新西兰、加拿大和美国外,都集中在欧洲。这些国家是(从高到低)挪
威339132元/年,芬兰240000元/年,瑞典223200元/年,冰岛208396元/年,爱尔兰
185353元/年,摩纳哥168550元/年,丹麦158991元/年,德国142128元/年,卢森堡141379元/年,荷兰134421元/年,
澳大利亚133203元/年,比利时131992元/年,法国122941元/年,新西兰117117元/年,加拿大113638元/年,圣马力诺
111097元/年,意大利110265元/年,瑞士108577元/年,安道尔107748元/年,美国105560元/年。

中国最低年收入为6120元,不到世界平均值的15%,排在158位,倒数第26位,最低收入排名在中国之后的25个国家有14个在非洲,8个在亚洲,大
洋洲、美国和欧洲各有一个国家。

二、衡量最低工资的三个指标

衡量最低工资的指标有3个,第一个是最低工资与人均GDP的比率,用于解释国家劳动力的价值;第二个是最低工资与平均工资的比率,用于解释分配公平情况;
第三个是最低工资的增长率,用于解释国家对低收入群体的关注情况。

最低工资与人均GDP的比值世界平均为58%,中国比较熟悉的国家的数据是:埃塞俄比亚127%,刚果金125%,阿富汗113%,巴基斯坦110%,印

106%,芬兰66%,尼日利亚66%,摩洛哥64%,喀麦隆63%,新西兰62%,瑞典61%,丹麦61%,孟加拉61%,古巴60%,伊朗59%,菲
律宾59%,蒙古56%,比利时52%,澳大利亚51%,法国51%,德国45%,希腊44%,挪威43%,葡萄牙42%,加拿大41%,意大利40%,
韩国37%,瑞士36%,美国32%,日本32%,英国28%。中国是25%,世界排第158位。值得注意的是,有25个国家(多数是非洲国家)是高债务
国,其最低工资超过人均GDP。

世界各国平均工资数据不全,本报告采用经合组织的数据。经合组织24国最低工资与平均工资的比值平均为50%,由高到低排名为:瑞士83%,瑞典
76%,芬兰73%,挪威71%,爱尔兰60%,丹麦58%,德国58%,意大利54%,波兰52%,葡萄牙51%,希腊50%,法国49%,比利时
46%,澳大利亚45%,荷兰45%,西班牙45%,卢森堡41%,韩国37%,澳大利亚36%,捷克36%,日本35%,英国30%,美国30%,匈牙
利29%。24国平均工资占人均GDP的81%,最低工资与人均GDP的比值是41%。

中国平均工资如果按照国家统计局的数据,中国最低工资是平均工资的21%。

发展中国家平均工资占人均GDP的比重高于发达国家,一般在110%左右。

在2001至 2007年间,最低工资年增长率(扣除通货膨胀因素)发达国家为3.8%,发展中国家为
6.5%,世界平均为5.7%。在1995年至2007年间,世界人均GDP每增加1个百分点,平均工资增加0.75个百分点。

三、社会财富分配与贫富差距

财富分配主要考察高、低收入群体收入状况,也就是社会财富的流向,用占社会总收入的百分比来表达。本节对有数据(2005年数据)的134个国家进行分
析。

世界最富的20%的群体收入平均占社会总收入的
47%,这个比率越低,贫富差距越小,社会越和谐。比率最低的20个国家是(从低到高):阿塞拜疆30%,斯洛伐克35%,日本36%,丹麦36%,捷克

36%,瑞典37%,白俄罗斯37%,芬兰37%,德国37%,挪威37%,乌克兰37%,韩国38%,克罗地亚38%,奥地利38%,保加利亚38%,
塞尔维亚38%,匈牙利39%,荷兰39%,埃塞俄比亚39,斯洛文尼亚39%。超过47%的国家绝大多数是非洲和南美洲国家。所有工业化国家这一数值均
低于世界平均值,没有列进上述20个国家的工业化国家是:加拿大40%,法国40%,澳大利亚41%,瑞士41%,比利时41%,希腊42%,爱尔兰
42%,意大利42%,西班牙42%,新西兰44%,英国44%,俄罗斯44%,美国46%,葡萄牙46%。中国为48%,高于世界平均值一个百分点,在
134个国家中排第81位。

世界最穷的20%的群体收入平均占社会总收入的6%,这个比率越高,贫富差距越小,社会越和谐。最高的20个国家是(由高到低)阿塞拜疆13%,日本
11%,捷克10%,芬兰10%,挪威10%,孟加拉9%,埃塞俄比亚9%,瑞典9%,巴基斯坦9%,乌克兰
9%,埃及9%,布隆迪9%,斯洛伐克9%,白俄罗斯9%,克罗地亚9%,保加利亚9%,奥地利9%,亚美尼亚9%,德国9%,比利时9%。低于6%的国
家绝大多数是非洲和南美洲国家。中国为5.7%,低于世界平均值0.3个百分点,在134个国家中排第88位。西方工业化国家除美国外都高于中国,美国为
5.4%。

中国财政部的统计数字显示,中国10%的富裕家庭占城市居民全部财产的45%,世界这一数值是31.7%;最低收入10%的家庭占城市居民全部财产的
1.4%,世界这一数值是2.5%。最富的10%占社会财富超过45%的国家只有4个国家,即哥伦比亚45.9%,海地
47.8%,博茨瓦纳51%和纳米比亚65%;最穷的10%占社会财富低于1.4%的只有17个国家,即纳米比亚1.3%,危地马拉1.3%,南非
1.3%,博茨瓦纳1.3%,阿根廷1.2%,厄瓜多尔1.2%,巴拉圭1.1%,巴西1.1%,萨尔瓦多1%,莱索托1%,海地0.9%,巴拿马
0.8%,哥伦比亚0.8%,洪都拉斯0.7%,安哥拉0.6%,纳米比亚0.6%,玻利维亚0.5%。以上数字表明,如果只考察城市收入状况,中国是世
界上贫富差距最大的几个国家之一。

世界用吉尼系数来描述一个国家的贫富差距,吉尼系数在0.2以下叫高度平等社会,在0.2到0.4之间叫低度不平等社会,在0.4以上叫高度不平等社会。

2005年,世界134个国家吉尼系数平均为0.40,中国为0.42,在134个国家中排名第83位,所有工业化国家的吉尼系数均低与中国,丹麦
0.25,日本0.25,瑞典0.25,挪威0.26,芬兰0.27,德国0.28,奥地利
0.29,荷兰0.31,韩国0.32,加拿大0.33,法国0.33,比利时0.33,瑞士0.34,爱尔兰0.34,希腊0.34,西班牙0.35,
澳大利亚0.35,英国0.36,意大利0.36,美国0.41。排在中国后面的51个国家多数是非洲和南美国家。

2007年,世界平均家庭消费占人均GDP的61%,中国这一数字为34%,约是世界水平的一半。

世界通常把日生活支出1.25美元划为赤贫线,2
美元划为贫困线,2005年,中国在赤贫线及以下的人口占全国总人口的20%,在贫困线及以下的人口占全国总人口的49%。中国在世界属于贫穷国家。

四、世界工资研究结论(略)

五、中国工资存在的问题及改革建议

中国工资存在的主要问题是没有工资制度,特别是国家公务员工资,每次都没经过人民的同意悄悄涨薪,而且幅度是GDP增幅的2倍,这在世界绝无仅有,因为公
务员是人民的雇员,公务员工资必须经过人民批准才合法。一些国有垄断企业的工资高出最低工资几十倍上百倍,使人民财富大量流失到少数人手中,造成严重的分
配不公。

1.工资统计必须覆盖所有从业人员

国家统计局每年只统计吃皇粮的工资,工资统计覆盖面还不到从业人员的15%,这绝对真是“中国特色”。每年公布全国平均工资,百姓为自己的工资“被增长”
而愤怒,这样统计只能误导政策制定者制定不得人心的政策。

世界除战乱国家外,几乎都把所有从业人员纳入工资统计范围,包括保姆、发廊理发员、饭馆洗菜工、服务员、自由职业者、农业季节性工人等。道理很简单,任何
劳动者都是国家财富的创造者,不把他们统计进去那就是对他们的漠视,就相当于国家把他们抛弃,抛弃了衣食父母是忘本的不道德的行为。
  

统计是制定政策的指针,国家统计局的工资统计必须包括在中华人民共和国国土上的所有劳动并获得报酬的人员的工资,这样才能获得真实的数据。否则,如果只统
计吃皇粮的工资,中国的贫富差距会越来越大,社会越来越动荡,和谐社会只能是句口号,人民绝对不满意。
  
2.国家法定最低工资应提高到1177元/月

我们以2008年人均GDP排名第11位的河北省作样本(人均
GDP19363元)。2008年河北省最低工资分为680元/月、620元/月、560元/月和510元/月,本报告与世界其他国家和地区一致,取最低
值,即510元/月或6120元/年,在世界183个国家和地区中排第158位,甚至有32个非洲国家的最低工资高于中国。中国吃皇粮的工资2008年涨
幅高达17.2%,几乎是GDP增幅的2倍,天津等省市的最低工资9年来没作调整,有的地区虽然调整了最低工资,但其增幅也大大低于公务员增薪幅度。

中国2009年的人均GDP世界排名第99位,可我们的最低工资却排在第158位,最低工资标准显然与经济发展不相称,人民为经济发展做出了贡献,可他们
却没有因此受益。

世界多数国家的工资占企业成本的50%,中国还不到10%。由于85%的从业人员的工资过低,并且多年不作调整,使中国从业人员的劳动报酬在国民收入中的
比重逐年下降,资本回报比重却逐年上升。最低工资过低是内需不足的主要原因。

世界最低工资平均是人均
GDP的58%,目前中国的最低工资只是人均GDP的25%,不及世界标准的一半。所以,中国工资问题的当务之急是把最低工资调整到世界平均水平,即人均

GDP的58%。2009年中国的人均GDP为3566美元,即24356人民币元,中国的最低工资标准应为14126元/年或1177元/月。这是国家
规定的最低工资标准,各盛市、自治区可根据当地的经济状况制定本地区的最低工资标准,但不得低于国家法定最低工资。

科学、合理并与国际惯例接轨的最低工资一旦确定,全国私营企业的平均工资就自然形成,因为企业都倾向于用最低工资雇工。研究显示,平均工资是最低工资的2
倍,也就是说,中国所有从业人员的平均工资会在2354元/月左右波动。

3.建立可比性公务员工资制度和利益回避制度

工资高低是相对的,对比出来的,也就是说,任何工资制度的建立必须首先确定参照系,那就是人均GDP、最低工资和全国从业人员平均工资。世界公务员的平均
工资大致等于人均 GDP,与全国从业人员平均工资持平,是最低工资的2倍。

按照国家统计局的数据,2008年中国公务员平均工资是33869元/年,约是最低工资的6倍,这样对比可以说中国公务员工资是世界上最高的。因为世界多
数国家公务员工资是最低工资的2倍。所以,按照国际惯例,中国公务员工资标准应是这样的:如果按中国现在最低工资510元/月的标准,那公务员工资应为
1020元/月;如果把最低工资定在合理的1177元/月,那公务员工资应是
2354元/月。如果官员们不接受前一个标准,那他们就该认真考虑考虑百姓的工资了。

国家要制定工资法,该法律必须体现公务员与私营企业以及公务员内部同工同酬的原则,公务员工资紧盯私营企业并不得高于私营企业。参照工业化国家的先进工资
管理经验,工资标准用工资基数确定下来,按照总理正副职、部级正副职、司级正副职、处级正副职、科级正副职、科员、办事员12级,每级10档共120个工
资级别确定工资基数,级档标准可以交叉,工资基数固定,每年根据统计局的物价指数进行微调。工资制度一定要透明,任何公民可以查验任何公务员的工资标准。
在制定工资标准时,必须遵守利益回避制度,公务员给自己加薪为非法,任何工资标准的变动,必须经过人大通过方可生效。
  
4.公有制企业工资标准参照公务员工资

中国政府注资企业各行业间工资差别悬殊,这在世界也是绝无仅有。根据2009年5月5日《中国青年报》的报道,在14家上市银行中,浦发银行、民生银行和
中信银行的人均薪酬最高,各为45.62万元/年、39.82万元/年和34.61万元/年,人均薪酬最少的工商银行、交通银行、建设银行分别为
13.04
万元/年、14.79万元/年和15.36万元/年。中国建筑、餐饮、编织等行业的工资约在1万元/年左右,中国行业之间工资差达到了3000%,是世界
平均值的43倍!

国有企业职工原则上也属于公务员的范畴,因为国有资产属于全国人民所有,人民雇用一些人经营这些企业,这和政府机关公务员的性质是一样的。在国外,凡受人
民之托为人民办事的人都属于公务员的范畴。所以,公有制企业工资标准必须参照公务员工资,不能凭借自己的垄断地位发天价工资,变相窃取人民财富。国资委主
任李荣融说:“现在央企高管年薪定得并不高,平均薪酬也就是60万元人民币左右。”这就是中国的问题,官员总认为自己的工资并不高,可这60万是普通百姓
一辈子也挣不来的呀。

中国最低工资是人均GDP的25%,世界平均值为58%;中国最低工资是平均工资的21%,世界平均值为50%;中国公务员工资是最低工资的6倍,世界平
均值为2倍;中国国企高管工资是最低工资的98倍,世界平均为5倍;中国行业工资差高达3000%,世界平均为70%。这些数据就是警示,政府必须采取行
动了。

中国用十几年的时间成为世界上贫富差距最大的几个国家之一。火车轨道是平行的,工资要与国际接轨必须将两条铁轨平行着一起接,不能把某些人的轨了上去,把
百姓的轨留在原地,这样,中国列车就无法前进。

现在是政府痛下决心参照国际惯例理顺工资关系的时候了,该降的降,该涨的涨,让人民满意,让人民高兴,让社会和谐,否则,人民的忍耐是有底地线的,整个中
华民族的整体利益必将会因此蒙受不可挽回的损失。(作者博客:飞翔的铁塔 作者联系QQ:327954416 本文版权没有,欢迎转载传播。)

附:郎咸平教授谈收入文章

中国人均储蓄这么一点钱,怎么拉动经济?二三十年来我们的GDP成长很快,可是,人均储蓄的上升幅度远远地低于GDP。你知道是什么意思吗?代表GDP增
长和我们老百姓关系是越来越疏远。你晓不晓得这种政策走下来,我们老百姓现在有多贫穷?

工资总额除上GDP,美国、英国,58%、56%,日本53%,法国53%,加拿大51%,澳大利亚47%,下面韩国44%,阿根廷36%,墨西哥
33%,委内瑞拉31%,那些比较穷的国家呢,东南亚国家,包括泰国、菲律宾,28%,那么这个被美国制裁的伊朗呢,还有他隔壁的土耳其,这两个也是穷
国,25%,非洲资料我们找不到,但是按照判断,应该是20%以下。

请大家猜一下,中国应该和哪一个地区类似?90%以上的人认为中国的薪资收入除上GDP,应该是非洲的水平。你们怎么这么乐观啊,中国是8%。还不如非
洲,全世界最低的工资收入,你怎么拉动消费呀。你们可能会说,除上GDP,我们是8%,我们绝对的工资收入,说不定还可以。

那我们来看一看每小时的工资收入是多少吧。第一名德国,30.6美元,德国、美国、日本、加拿大、英国、法国、韩国、巴西、马来西亚、泰国都在我们前面,
中国是0.8。绝对工资收入,每小时工资,中国是全世界最低,因此我们工资收入是全世界最低,我们占的GDP比重还是全世界最低,为什么?因为你没有藏富
于民。

还有,我们工人可怜到什么程度,不但工资收入是全世界最低的,工作的时间,我们还是排第一的,中国工作时间,每年工作时间2200小时。我们就是一个感觉
良好的民族。欧洲为什么不工作呢?因为他们太懒惰了,中国为什么做了这么多工作的时间呢?因为中国是个勤劳的民族,对不对?你晓得为什么勤劳吗?你告诉我
为什么勤劳?因为你的钱太少了,因为你排到最后,钱太少了,不勤劳,怎么养家糊口?所以,中国是一个什么国家?薪水太低的国家。为什么呢?因为没有藏富于
民。

所以未来我们要怎么做?藏富于民。第一、通过各种政策,保护民营企业赚取利润的权益,希望民营企业赚更多的钱,当然,国营企业也包括在内。然后我们还需要
建立起一套良好的分配机制,那就是如何把这些赚到的钱,有效率地分给全国老百姓,让大家一起致富。这就是我要告诉大家的,放弃保八,藏富于民。

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英特尔开发Linux操作系统 微软或受冲击

为进一步证明在开发软件市场的野心,近日,全球最大芯片制造厂商英特尔发布新版本Moblin操作系统。

据悉,英特尔此次推出的新版Moblin操作系统是Linux操作系统的变体。有业内人士认为,新版Moblin的推出,将打破微软Windows一统笔记本电脑市场的局势。

此前,英特尔的商业伙伴Novell公司将帮助英特尔改进和销售新操作系统Moblin。Novell认为,Moblin是一种容易操作的软件,有望迅速打入PC市场,将受到一些正在寻找Windows替代品人士的青睐,从而引发市场混乱。

对于英特尔的这一举动,微软方面表示不会对英特尔的发展计划发表评价,微软相信消费者将继续选择Windows软件。相比其他Linux版本的竞争者,Windows目前占据了超过96%的笔记本软件销售市场份额。

分析人士认为,微软并不是惟一一个可能受到影响的公司, Moblin还能在智能手机和其他“袖珍”互联网设备上运用,因此谷歌Android操作系统也受到了被取代的危险。另外,Moblin也将对苹果的iPhone构成挑战。商报记者 吴辰光

 北京商报  吴辰光 

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